About the Woomera Prohibited Area

Help us improve. We welcome feedback on how we can improve the information about the range management framework.

The Woomera Range Complex is a globally unique military testing range. It covers 122 188 square kilometres in north-west South Australia, about 450 kilometres NNW of Adelaide. It is the largest land testing range in the world. The majority of the Woomera Protected Area (WPA) is South Australian Crown land and is covered by pastoral leases and mining tenements granted by the South Australian Government.

The WPA is a Prohibited Area regulated by the Defence Act 1903,  Defence Force Regulations 1952 and the WPA Rule 2014 and is a Defence premise used for the testing of war materiel under the control of the Royal Australian Air Force. The WPA is an important Defence capability and testing and evaluation asset that plays a significant role in Australia’s national security.

The WPA is also highly prospective and the South Australian Government and Geoscience Australia have assessed that over the next decade about $35 billion worth of  iron ore, gold and other mineral resources are potentially exploitable from within the WPA. 

The WPA comprises extensive lands north of the Indian Pacific railway, from north of Watson in the south-west up to its north-west corner in the Great Victoria Desert (that stretches across the SA-WA border), across to Coober Pedy, and west of Roxby Downs down to Woomera in the south-east.


Woomera was declared a prohibited area in 1947. The WPA's size (122 188 km2), remote location and quiet electromagnetic environment made it an ideal test and evaluation site for Australia and its allies and partners. The WPA was established as a long-range weapons testing facility by the United Kingdom and Australia under the Anglo-Australian Joint Project, which wound down during the 1970s.

Defence use of the WPA declined during the 1980s and 1990s and it was opened up to non-Defence users including the resources sector.

Changes in the strategic environment since the late 1990s have resulted in increasing use of WPA facilities for the testing and evaluation of weapons systems. The range is now, in parts, in near constant use. This growth coincided with increasing mineral exploitation interest.

In 2010–11 an Australian Government review made recommendations to improve the use of the WPA in Australia’s national interest by better balancing national security and economic interests. The review’s recommendations defined a comprehensive range management framework and transition arrangements necessary to facilitate its introduction. These recommendations culminated in legislative changes in 2014 that detailed new access arrangements.

As of 2015, the term Woomera Range Complex is used to describe the entire Woomera test and evaluation capability, comprised of the Woomera Test Range, RAAF Base Woomera and associated facilities within the complex.

As a declared prohibited area, access to the WPA for non-Defence use requires Commonwealth approval and is on the proviso that Defence activities will not be unduly compromised.


Example image from Defence Image GalleryFile imagery is available from the Defence Image Gallery.

Media releases