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  • The art and science of asking questions is the source of all knowledge. - Thomas Berger
  • Intelligence is quickness in seeing things as they are. - George Santayana
  • You have never really lived until you've done something for someone who can never repay you. - Unknown
  • There is never a better measure of what a person is than what he does when he's absolutely free to choose. - Bern Williams
  • What do we live for, if it is not to make life less difficult for each other? - George Eliot
  • It is not enough to have a good mind; the main thing is to use it well. - Rene Descartes

DIO Publications

Defence Economic Trends

This annual publication analyses significant trends in defence spending in the Asia-Pacific region. It draws together official defence budgets and national economic data on 30 countries across South-East Asia, the South Pacific, North Asia, South Asia, North America and Europe. It enables comparisons between countries over time and provides a guide to expenditure trends for regional armed forces.

The Defence Economic Trends series is now titled and numbered according to the year in which the report is published. Earlier editions were titled for the year of the budgets being reviewed. The last to use the old convention was Defence Economic Trends 2011, published in 2012.

In 2011, a new methodology was adopted to convert nominal official defence expenditure into ‘constant’ current-year terms by using a GDP deflator. While there are some limitations to undertaking expenditure comparisons, our estimates give readers a guide to overall defence spending trends.