Click the categories below to see answers to your most frequently asked questions. Frequently Asked Questions will be updated or added as the investigations progress.
If you are seeking answers to questions that are specific to a particular environmental investigation, please visit the relevant environmental investigation website. Links to all environmental investigation websites are here.
Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made compounds that have been used for various applications around the world since the 1950’s, including Australia.
PFAS are stable chemical compounds that do not break down in the environment. They remain in the environment, on properties and in trace amounts in humans for a long time.
PFAS have typically been used to make coatings and products that resist heat, oil, stains, water and grease across Australia and around the world. The image below shows some products that commonly contain PFAS.
Common household products and specialty applications where PFAS may be present include: the manufacture of non-stick cookware; fabric, furniture and carpet stain protection applications; food packaging; and in some industrial processes.
Visit the "What is PFAS?" page for more information.
Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) has been used in Australia and worldwide for many years to assist with fire training drills and emergency/disaster event training by government and private sector organisations. This includes Defence military base locations, civilian aerodromes and industrial facilities around Australia.
AFFF is the most effective firefighting medium for liquid fuel fires to ensure human safety in emergency situations. AFFF acts quickly to smother fuel, preventing contact with oxygen by adding a thin film of foam over the fire.
The detection of PFAS from the previous use of AFFF products is a national and international matter that is not unique to Defence.
From 2004, Defence commenced phasing out its use of legacy firefighting foams containing perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as active ingredients. Defence now uses a more environmentally safe firefighting product called Ansulite. Ansulite does not contain PFOS and PFOA as active ingredients, only in trace amounts.
Ansulite is used by Defence only in emergency situations where human life is at risk, or in controlled environments to test equipment.
Any Ansulite used by Defence is captured and treated and/or disposed of at licensed waste disposal facilities, in accordance with best-practice regulations, and standards.
Defence-owned facilities have been upgraded, where firefighting foams are used, to create closed systems. Closed systems are designed to capture spent firefighting foam and minimise the risk of firefighting foam being released into the environment.
Defence cannot provide health advice as this is the role of respective State and/or local health authorities and practitioners. Defence’s position on health issues relating to PFAS aligns with the enHealth guidance statements as outlined by the Australian Government Department of Health.
Defence cannot provide Health advice and relies on guidance from the relevant health authorities, including the Environmental Health Standing Committee (enHealth).
EnHealth has released guidance statements to help assess public health risks when PFAS have been released into the environment. In July 2019, the statements were updated to reflect the most current evidence relating to PFAS.
The Australian Government’s Expert Health Panel for PFAS found that, although the scientific evidence in humans is limited, reviews and scientific research to date have provided fairly consistent reports of an association with several health effects. The health effects reported in these associations are generally small and within normal ranges for the whole population.
There is also limited to no evidence of human disease or other clinically significant harm resulting from PFAS exposure at this time.
As a precaution, enHealth recommends exposure to PFAS be minimised wherever possible while further research is undertaken on the potential health effects of PFAS exposure. If you live or work in a PFAS contaminated area, your state or territory health department can provide you with local advice on how to minimise exposure to PFAS.
For more information, contact your state or territory health department, or the Commonwealth Department of Health.
Phone: 1800 941 180
If required, Defence will cooperate with State and Territory Governments to undertake human health and ecological risk assessments. These human health and ecological risk assessments test PFAS levels in animals and plants that are part of the human food chain, as well as some that are not.
The Australian Government provided free blood testing for PFAS for people who live or work, or who have lived or worked, in the RAAF Base Williamtown, NSW, Army Aviation Centre Oakey, Qld, or RAAF Base Tindal, NT Investigation Areas and who had potentially been exposed to PFAS. This program was established at each of these locations following human health risk assessments which clearly demonstrated long-term and continuous PFAS exposure across multiple pathways, including drinking water, at a community population level.
On June 30 2019, The Australian Government PFAS voluntary blood testing program concluded.
The ending of the Voluntary Blood Testing Program was aligned with the next stage of the Australian National University epidemiological study which is looking into the potential health effects of PFAS.
More information on the Blood Testing Program can be found here.
The Department of Health has released health based guidance values for some types of PFAS.
Health based guidance values can be used for assessing potential exposure to PFAS through food, drinking water and recreational water during site investigations for PFAS contamination in Australia.
Further details can be found on the Department of Health website.
Several organisations are undertaking environmental investigations into PFAS within their area of responsibility. In addition to Defence these include water service providers, State Environmental Protection Authorities and Airservices.
To see a list of all Defence PFAS Investigation and Management sites click here.
For information about other Commonwealth and State or Territory PFAS investigations, visit the central Australian Government PFAS website.
The detailed environmental investigations involve:
The Commonwealth Department of Health released the Health Based Guidance Values (HBGV) for PFAS on 3 April 2017. These HBGVs were developed by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), at the request of the Department of Health.
The HBGVs for PFAS are a precautionary measure to assist people, investigating agencies and affected communities in minimising their exposure to PFAS. For more information visit the Department of Health website.
The Department of Environment and Energy has published a National Environmental Management Plan that includes screening levels for PFAS in soil. These screening levels are derived using standard calculation methods described in the National Environment Protection (Assessment of Site Contamination) Measure.
The National Environmental Management Plan is available on the EPA Victoria website.
Requests from organisations and individuals for samples of contaminated soil and water should be sent to email@example.com for review and consideration.
When a laboratory tests a sample for PFAS the result may be below the limit of reporting (<LOR). This either means that there is no PFAS in the sample or the amount of PFAS is too small for the laboratory to measure with any degree of certainty.
The limit of reporting is well below all health based guidance values and screening criteria. There is no need to change the way you use water, soil, plants or animals that have been tested and returned a result below the limit of reporting.
The Environmental Health Standing Committee (enHealth) of the Australian Health Protection Principal Committee (AHPPC) has released guidance statements to help assess public health risks when PFAS have been released into the environment. In July 2019, the statements were updated to reflect the most current evidence relating to PFAS.
The Expert Health Panel for PFAS found that although the scientific evidence in humans is limited, reviews and scientific research to date have provided fairly consistent reports of an association with several health effects.
The health effects reported in these associations are generally small and within normal ranges for the whole population.
There is also limited to no evidence of human disease or other clinically significant harm resulting from PFAS exposure at this time.
As precaution, enHealth recommends exposure to PFAS be minimised wherever possible whilst further research is undertaken on the potential health effects of PFAS exposure.
If you live or work in a PFAS contaminated area, your state or territory health department can provide you with local advice on how to minimise exposure to PFAS. Defence will sample the bore or tank water, and assess the result, before a decision is made. The progress of individual investigations and circumstances will be taken into account.
Further information about managing tank water can be found on the Guidance on use of rain water tanks factsheet.
Households within the defined Investigation Areas, that do not have a town water connection and drink bore water (directly or via rainwater tanks), are encouraged to contact the Project teams to have their bore tested. Defence may also test domestic swimming pools that are filled and maintained with bore water. If an exposure risk is identified, Defence will arrange for an alternative water supply.
Alternative water supply options may include:
While Defence is aware that certain domestic filters claim to reduce PFAS levels in water, Defence cannot advise on the effectiveness of these filters. The purchase and maintenance of domestic filters is at the discretion of residents.
If your property is selected for testing as part of the investigation, you will receive a letter and consent form seeking permission to sample your property. You will be requested to contact the Project team to arrange a suitable date and time.
Not every property in the investigation area needs to be tested to estimate the extent of PFAS in the investigation area. If you would like to have your property tested you can ask the Project team. You will be asked to complete a Water Use Survey to assess your eligibility. Priority is generally given to properties within the investigation area and where residents use bore water for drinking.
Residential bores, extraction bores and tanks are sampled to measure water quality (with respect to PFAS) at the point it is used. The first flush sampling method is used to understand the quality of water that comes out of the bore or tank when the tap or pump is turned on.
If targeted PFAS compounds have accumulated in pipe work and are released into water during the first flush, the sample will include them.
The following steps are undertaken when using the first flush sampling method. These steps follow strict procedures, consistent with relevant Australian standards to ensure data integrity:
The best management activities for investigation sites are determined by site-specific factors such as the site’s hydrogeology, the nature and extent of PFAS detections and access to the site.
The detailed site investigation assists in determining the most appropriate management strategies for a particular site. Following the completion of the environmental investigation a PFAS Management Area Plan will be developed recommending activities to manage and monitor PFAS contamination.
Visit the Management Activities page for further information on what management & remediation activities Defence is currently undertaking.
Following the completion of detailed environmental investigations into PFAS on, and in the vicinity of Defence sites, a PFAS Management Area Plan (PMAP) will be developed for each site based on the investigation findings. The PMAP recommends actions to manage and reduce the risks of PFAS exposure for the community. The PMAP will outline how Defence will:
The development of the PMAP involves a review of the key PFAS source areas, migration pathways and exposure risks to identify areas that require targeted management and remediation measures.
An evaluation of a range of available management and remediation options is then undertaken to identify the best options for the site.
Prior to finalising and publishing the PMAP, Defence engages with state/territory regulators and relevant departments for review and comment on the analysis and recommendations in the PMAP.
Defence will review and update (where necessary) the PMAP at intervals of 12 months to ensure that the document is current and its recommendations are valid.
Defence will regularly update the communities where investigation and management activities are taking place. Updates will be delivered through community information sessions, advice from the Project team, factsheets and the website, including these FAQs.
Individual claims for compensation will be considered on a case by case basis. How to make a claim is outlined on the PFAS financial claims page.
Note that Defence cannot advise landholders, property owners and residents about legal representation or conditions offered by legal representatives.