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Australian Journal of Defence and Strategic Studies


AJDSS Volume 1 Issue 1

Competition short of war - how Russia's hybrid and grey-zone warfare are a blueprint for China's global power ambitions

Sascha Dominik Bachmann, Andrew Dowse, Hakan Gunneriusson

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Using the concepts of hybrid warfare and grey-zone warfare, this article argues that the implementation of China's 2015 military strategy of active defence and the territorial objectives in the 2019 Defence White Paper are being informed by examples of contemporary Russian warfare approaches. It compares the present Chinese aggressive foreign policy approach in the South China Sea with the precedents of Russia’s annexation of Crimea and ongoing aggression in the Ukraine. It concludes with a call for decision-makers in Australia and other Western democracies to learn from these lessons in order to counter such hybrid threats.

This article has been peer reviewed





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