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Annual Report 2013-14

Volume 1, Part 3 : Governance and Accountability

Chapter 8 - People


Workforce summary

Defence budgets for its ADF workforce on a funded strength basis and the APS workforce on a full-time equivalent (FTE)—that is, paid—basis. Defence uses actual FTE—that is, paid strength at a particular date—as the most accurate indicator of current staffing levels. Workforce planning is based on average funded strength and average FTE respectively for the financial year. These averages, while suitable for planning and budgeting purposes, are lag indicators against the actual end-of-year figures.

Defence records some statistical data by headcount; that is, all personnel are counted equally regardless of the number of hours worked, and the figures include all personnel recorded as on duty or on leave, full-time or part-time, with or without pay. This statistical basis is used for gender information, employment categories and location. Defence does not base its workforce planning on headcount staffing figures.

By way of comparison, ADF and APS staffing figures for 2013–14, and for 2012–13, are shown against the three measures in tables 8.1 and 8.2.

Table 8.1: Australian Defence Force—staffing figures 2013–14

ADF staffing measure

2012–13

2013–14

Variation

For workforce planning purposes

Actual funded strength (paid strength as at 30 June)

56,117

56,922

+805

Average funded strength (over the financial year)

56,607

56,364

–243

For other statistical data

Permanent strength (headcount) (on duty/leave and paid/unpaid)

56,159

57,036

+877

Note

Figures do not include the Reserve workforce. Due to the nature of Reserve service, Reservists are counted by headcount rather than average strength and the numbers are not comparable.

Table 8.2: Australian Public Service—staffing figures 2013–14

ADF staffing measure

2012–13

2013–14

Variation

For workforce planning purposes

Actual FTE (paid strength as at 30 June)

21,006

19,988

–1,018

Average FTE (over the financial year)

21,534

20,496

–1,038

For other statistical data

Headcount figure (on duty/leave, full-time or part-time, paid or unpaid)

22,105

21,194

–911

Workforce planning

This section provides information on the average workforce strength during 2013–14.

Project Suakin


The ability to attract and retain the right people, in the right numbers, is fundamental to the sustainment of ADF capability. Project Suakin is a whole-of-Defence workforce model designed to contribute to ADF capability by providing the flexibility to manage the workforce using full-time, part-time and casual service arrangements.

The flexibility afforded by the new model will contribute to a reduction in the barriers limiting members’ ability to achieve a long-term military career, and support increased diversity across the military workforce. Simpler transfer arrangements between categories of service—for example, from full-time to part-time and vice versa—and at various stages of a member’s life will result in greater retention of skills and knowledge and a reduction in turnover in critical trades.

During 2013–14, milestones set to track the development of the foundation elements of the new model were largely achieved. The project has supported the alignment of certain allowances and conditions of service for Reservists, and the detailed design of the new workforce model is nearing completion.

Phase 2 of the project commenced on 1 July 2014. Its primary focus is to put in place the mechanisms needed to deploy the model. The outputs of Project Suakin will enhance Defence’s ability to deliver military capability while at the same time enabling staff to achieve a number of strategic personnel objectives.

ADF permanent force

Table 8.3 shows details of the ADF permanent force average funded strength for 2013–14. The ADF average strength achievement was 56,364 in 2013–14, a decrease of 243 from 2012–13. These figures include ADF Reservists on continuous full-time service. Average funded strength achievement for continuous full-time service in 2013–14 was 727 (comprising Navy 400, Army 252 and Air Force 75)—an increase of 221 from 2012–13.

The ADF permanent force grew significantly between 2007 and 2011 in response to requirements such as the Hardened and Networked Army, the Enhanced Land Force, the Defence Capability Plan and initiatives from the 2009 Defence White Paper. This growth included a recruitment surge over the period 2007 to 2010.

After reaching a peak in 2010–11, permanent force strength trended downwards until January 2014. It has been increasing since then, and further growth towards the approved allocation is expected in future years.

Table 8.3: ADF permanent force average funded strength (including DMO), 2013–14

2012–13 actual

2013–14 budget estimate[1]

2013–14 revised estimate[2]

2013–14 actual

Variation

%

Navy

13,760

14,224

13,794

13,862

68

0.5

Army

28,928

29,847

28,833

28,568

–265

–0.9

Air Force

13,919

14,164

13,943

13,934

–9

–0.1

Total average funded strength

56,607

58,235

56,570

56,364

–206

–0.4

Notes

Figures in this table are average strengths; they are not a ‘headcount’. Reservists undertaking full-time service are included. Employees on forms of leave without pay are not included.

  1. As published in the Portfolio Budget Statements 2013–14.
  2. As published in the Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements 2013–14.

ADF enlistments and separations

The permanent ADF strength (headcount) increased by 877 in 2013–14; this reflects the net difference between enlistments and separations.

The ADF enlisted 6,355 permanent members, made up of 5,157 men and 1,198 women, for the 12 months up to 30 June 2014. This was 1,297 more than in 2012–13.

ADF enlistments can be categorised as ab initio (those with no prior military service) or prior service enlistments. Of the 6,355 permanent members enlisted, 968 entrants had prior military service in either the Reserves, the Gap Year program, another Service or another country, or had previous permanent force service. There were 5,387 ab initio entrants. Some prior service candidates are enlisted against Defence Force Recruiting permanent force entry targets.

Tables 8.4 and 8.5 provide information about separations during the financial year.

Table 8.4: ADF permanent force, 12-month rolling separation rates, 30 June 2013 and 30 June 2014

 

Twelve-month rolling separation rate (%)

 

30 June 2013

30 June 2014

Navy

8.9

8.4

Army

12.3

12.4

Air Force

6.3

5.5

ADF

10.0

9.7

Figure W8.1: Navy separation rates 2010–14

Figure W8.1 shows Navy separation rates, 2009–10 to 2013–14, remaining steady between 8 to 10 per cent.

Figure W8.2: Army separation rates 2010–14

Figure W8.2  shows Army separation rates, 2009–10 to 2013–14, remaining steady from 2012 at 12 per cent.

Figure W8.3: Air Force separation rates 2010–14

Figure W8.3 shows Air Force separation rates, 2009–10 to 2013–14, remaining steady between 5 and 7 per cent.

Figure W8.4: ADF separation rates 2010–14

Figure W8.4 shows ADF separation rates, 2009–10 to 2013–14, remaining steady from 2012 at 10 per cent.

Table 8.5: ADF permanent force separations, 2012–13 and 2013–14

   

Voluntary separations[1]

Involuntary separations[2]

Age retirement

Trainee separations

Total

2012–13[3]

Navy

Officers

87

18

2

67

174

Other ranks

633

237

0

164

1,034

Army

Officers

226

61

9

130

426

Other ranks

1,857

757

9

475

3,098

Air Force

Officers

157

34

6

35

232

Other ranks

485

85

9

76

655

Total permanent force

Officers

470

113

17

232

832

Other ranks

2,975

1,079

18

715

4,787

Total

3,445

1,192

35

947

5,619

2013–14

Navy

Officers

104

23

1

40

168

Other ranks

564

184

1

228

977

Army

Officers

212

84

11

139

446

Other ranks

1,667

871

5

564

3,107

Air Force

Officers

123

32

13

17

185

Other ranks

399

93

15

88

595

Total permanent force

Officers

439

139

25

196

799

Other ranks

2,630

1,148

21

880

4,679

Total

3,069

1,287

46

1,076

5,478

Notes

Figures in this table show permanent force employee numbers (substantive headcount). Reserves undertaking continuous full-time service are not included.Classifications are not mutually exclusive, and an individual is placed in only one group. The order of classifications is as follows: cadets and trainees, then age retirement; the remainder are classified as voluntary or involuntary. Employees commencing leave or leave without pay are not included.

  1. ‘Voluntary’ includes voluntary redundancies and resignations.
  2. ‘Involuntary’ primarily comprises members who are medically unfit, are unsuitable for further duty, died while serving or fell into the ‘Management initiated early retirement’ category.
  3. Some 2012–13 figures have been adjusted from what was reported in the Defence Annual Report 2012–13 to account for retrospective transactions.

A number of internal and external factors have contributed to ADF separation rates. One factor that has clearly affected the Army and hence the ADF is the earlier recruiting surge: many of the soldiers recruited at that time are now separating because they have reached the end of their initial minimum period of service, at which time there is a higher propensity to leave.

To address the increase in separations, Defence has developed the Defence Employment Offer framework to ensure that there is a compelling offer to join and stay with the organisation. Differentiated offers can be made to promote retention in those parts of the workforce that are under pressure.

The Navy has addressed training pipeline issues that previously hindered workforce growth. Recruiting targets are being increased for the Navy and the Army, which will aid growth towards a permanent workforce strength of around 58,500.

ADF Reserves

Table 8.6 shows the number of Reservists who rendered paid service during 2013–14. The number of days each Reservist works in a year can vary substantially depending on personal circumstances and organisational need.

In 2013–14, 19,741 Reservists undertook paid service, which was 967 less than the 2012–13 figure of 20,708. While this appears to suggest lower participation in Reserve service, it is significant that the number of Reserve members who served 20 or more days in the year increased by almost 3,000 from the previous financial year, and the total days served increased by over 25 per cent.

Table 8.6: ADF reserve paid strength (including DMO), 2013–14

2012–13 actual

2013–14 budget estimate[1]

2013–14 revised estimate[2]

2013–14 actual

Variation

%

Navy

2,229

2,150

2,150

2,021

–129

–6.0

Army

15,464

15,200

15,200

14,662

–538

–3.5

Air Force

3,015

3,100

3,100

3,058

–42

–1.4

Total paid Reserves

20,708

20,450

20,450

19,741

–709

–3.5

Notes

Because the number of days or hours worked by Reserve members can vary greatly, figures in this table are headcount rather than average strength. Reservists on full-time service in the permanent force are not included in this table; they are included in Table 8.3. Figures include the High Readiness Reserve Force, Active Reserve Force and Specialist Reserve Force.

  1. As published in the Portfolio Budget Statements 2013–14.
  2. As published in the Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements 2013–14.


APS workforce

Table 8.7 shows details of the APS average strength, expressed as average full-time equivalent (FTE), in 2013–14. APS average strength was 20,496 in 2013–14. This was a decrease of 1,038 from the 2012–13 figure of 21,534. The decrease in 2013–14 was 1,018 FTE, from 21,006 to 19,988 (Table 8.8). The decrease was due to continuing reforms to Defence’s business practices, including through the further progress of shared services reform.

Table 8.7: Civilian (APS and contractor) average FTE, 2013–14

2012–13 actual

2013–14 budget estimate[1]

2013–14 revised estimate[2]

2013–14 actual

Variation

%

APS—Defence

15,786

15,547

15,268

15,280

12

0.1

APS—DMO

5,389

5,307

4,878

4,812

–66

–1.4

APS—DMO – ADF backfill[3]

359

363

428

404

–24

–5.6

Total APS

21,534

21,217

20,574

20,496

–78

–0.4

Defence contractors

358

445

346

340

–6

–1.7

DMO contractors

33

48

28

18

–10

–35.7

Total contractors

391

493

374

358

–16

–4.3

Total civilian workforce

21,925

21,710

20,948

20,854

–94

–0.4

Notes

These figures are average FTE; they are not a headcount.

  1. As published in the Portfolio Budget Statements 2013–14.
  2. As published in the Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements 2013–14.
  3. The DMO manages its workforce under a combined ADF, APS and contractor model. Under that arrangement, it can use funding from unfilled ADF positions to fill and resource positions with APS staff.

Table 8.8: APS end-of-year FTE, 2013–14

2012–13 actual

2013–14 budget estimate[1]

2013–14 revised estimate[2]

2013–14 actual

Variation

%

APS

21,006

20,300

19,988

–312

–1.5

Notes

Figures in this table are actual FTE for the last payday of 2013–14. Employees on forms of leave without pay are not included. The figures differ from those in Table 8.7, as that table shows the average FTE over the whole year.

  1. The Portfolio Budget Statements 2013–14 did not include an estimate for end-of-year FTE.
  2. As published in the Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements 2013–14.

APS recruitment and separations

Defence recruited 473 APS employees during 2013–14, including 173 as part of the graduate program.

The APS (headcount) decreased by 911; this reflects the net difference between recruitment and separations. The separations are shown in Table 8.9 and the majority of separations were due to resignation/retirement from Defence.

Table 8.9: APS separations 2012–13 and 2013–14

 

Voluntary redundancy[1]

Involuntary separations[2]

Resignation/retirement[3]

Transfers[4]

Total

2012–13

Senior Executive Service

2

2

8

5

17

Senior officers

255

10

260

72

597

Other staff

453

74

987

131

1,645

Total APS (2012–13)

710

86

1,255

208

2,259

2013–14

Senior Executive Service

3

7

6

16

Senior officers

66

17

251

47

381

Other staff

89

77

725

96

987

Total APS (2013–14)

158

94

983

149

1,384

Notes

Figures in this table show ongoing and non-ongoing employee numbers (substantive headcount).

  1. Voluntary redundancies are managed at a Group level.
  2. Involuntary figures include breach of conduct, invalidity retirement, involuntary redundancy, lack of qualifications, non-performance, term probation and death.
  3. Resignation/retirement figures include resignation, retirement (minimum age and Senior Executive Service) and completion of non-ongoing.
  4. Transfers are those who have transferred to other government departments. Movements between Defence and the DMO are not included.

Remunerating people

Defence remuneration is a key component of the Defence employment offer, which realises the People in Defence vision. It provides a key incentive for people to join Defence, develop personally and professionally, and choose to remain in Defence. The employment offer provides for fair and competitive remuneration, consistent with the parameters laid down by Government.

Just as there are diverse ADF and APS remuneration requirements, there are separate ADF and APS remuneration structures, which are explained in this section.

ADF remuneration

The independent Defence Force Remuneration Tribunal established under section 58H of the Defence Act 1903 is responsible for setting pay and pay-related allowances for ADF members.

The ADF Workplace Remuneration Arrangement 2011–2014 is a key component of the ADF remuneration framework and is consistent with the Government’s broader workplace relations policies. The arrangement is part of the ADF remuneration initiative aimed at attracting and retaining military personnel and forms a significant part of the Defence employment offer.

The Workplace Remuneration Arrangement increases salary and salary-related allowances in return for improvements in organisational efficiency and productivity. Other conditions of service are determined by the Minister for Defence under section 58B of the Defence Act. The current arrangement expires on 3 November 2014.

Table 8.10: Permanent ADF salary ranges as at 30 June 2014

Rank

Salary range

Minimum

Maximum

Officer of the permanent force (equivalent)

General (E)[1]

$535,000

$764,420

Lieutenant General (E)[1]

$350,000

$537,600

Major General (E)[2]

$217,636

$265,408

Brigadier (E)[2,3]

$148,183

$242,705

Colonel (E)[2,3,4]

$135,000

$231,707

Lieutenant Colonel (E)[2,3,4]

$123,771

$220,486

Major (E)[2,4]

$81,329

$198,620

Captain (E)[2,4]

$63,699

$188,521

Lieutenant (E)[5]

$52,952

$110,996

2nd Lieutenant (E)[5]

$49,473

$103,619

Other rank of the permanent force (equivalent)

Warrant Officer Class 1 (E)

$72,131

$111,018

Warrant Officer Class 2 (E)

$66,436

$102,868

Staff Sergeant (E)

$64,208

$99,237

Sergeant (E)

$57,409

$94,906

Corporal (E)

$49,609

$86,784

Lance Corporal (E)

$45,633

$80,663

Private Proficient (E)

$44,690

$79,720

Private (E)

$43,766

$78,799

Notes

  1. General (E) and some Lieutenant General (E) rates are set by the Remuneration Tribunal.
  2. Includes rates for Medical Officers.
  3. Includes rates for Chaplains.
  4. Excludes Medical Procedural Specialist.
  5. Includes transitional rates for other rank appointed as officer.

Table 8.11: ADF workplace arrangements

Australian Defence Force[1]

Star rank

Non-star rank

Members covered by the Workplace Remuneration Arrangement

0

56,918

Members covered by the Senior Officer Remuneration Arrangement

168

0

Statutory office holders[2]

6

1

Non-statutory office holders

3

0

Notes

  1. Numbers in this table reflect permanent force members only. However, members of the Reserve force are also covered by the relevant arrangement.
  2. Statutory office holders in Defence are remunerated under determinations made by the Remuneration Tribunal, which is administered by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet.

APS remuneration

The Defence Enterprise Collective Agreement sets out most of the terms and conditions of employment—including remuneration, performance management and working arrangements—for Defence’s non-SES APS employees. The legal framework that underpins the agreement includes the Fair Work Act 2009 and the Public Service Act 1999. The agreement is developed through extensive consultation with Defence employees and their representatives and is negotiated and governed consistent with that legislation and broader government policy.

The agreement underpins Defence’s capacity to attract and retain employees with the right skills and experience to meet capability needs. It is a principles-based agreement that supports the deregulation of Defence’s employment policies and broader Defence reform agendas. It provides managers and supervisors with the flexibility to make and implement decisions in their workplaces that meet the needs of both Defence and its employees.

Through the agreement, Defence can provide its APS employees with an attractive employment offer and, in return, employees and supervisors have a range of responsibilities (including mutual responsibilities) that must be fulfilled as part of their employment. Salary rates for SES employees are set by a determination under section 24(1) of the Public Service Act.

Table 8.12 reflects Defence APS salary arrangements as at 30 June 2014. The majority of Defence employees receive salaries within the standard salary range; however, some employees with specialist skills receive higher salaries that reflect individual arrangements or recognised technical skill sets. These are covered under the Defence Enterprise Collective Agreement.

Remuneration arrangements need to be flexible enough to allow Defence to develop, attract and retain employees with the necessary skills and knowledge. The Secretary and any employee covered by the Defence Enterprise Collective Agreement may agree to make an individual flexibility arrangement to vary the effect of some specified terms of the agreement.

Table 8.12: APS salary ranges at 30 June 2014

 

Broadband salary range ($)

 

Classification

Minimum

Maximum

Individual arrangements[1]

SES pay arrangements

SES Band 3

$228,846

$272,659

$466,458[2]

SES Band 2

$184,037

$222,173

$258,496[3]

SES Band 1

$151,665

$177,964

$195,760

Collective agreement[4]

Executive Level 2

$111,559

$133,905

$179,276[5]

Executive Level 1

$96,084

$108,382

$133,905[6]

APS Level 6

$76,023

$86,844

$89,463[7]

APS Level 5

$69,395

$74,331

$74,904[8]

APS Level 4

$63,236

$69,038

$69,038

APS Level 3

$55,825

$61,512

$61,512

APS Level 2

$49,009

$55,096

$55,663[9]

APS Level 1

$43,306

$48,613

$48,613

Notes

  1. Maximum salary paid under an individual remuneration arrangement shown.
  2. Includes rates for Chief of Division 3.
  3. Includes rates for Chief of Division 2 and Medical Officer Class 6.
  4. Salary ranges provided under the Defence Enterprise Collective Agreement.
  5. Includes rates for EL2.1, EL2.2, Legal and Science specialist structures and Medical Officer Class 3 and 4.
  6. Includes rates for Public Affairs and Legal specialist structures and Medical Officer Class 1–2.
  7. Includes rates for Public Affairs Grade 2 retained pay point.
  8. Includes rates for Senior Technical Officer Grade 1 retained pay point.
  9. Includes rates for Technical Assistant Grade 2 retained pay point.

Senior Leadership Group remuneration

In accordance with government policy, SES employees in Defence have their conditions of employment—including levels of remuneration, set by a ‘collective’ determination made under section 24(1) of the Public Service Act— overlaid by individual common law agreements. Because Defence operates in a values-based employment framework, mutual responsibilities for SES employees in areas such as accountability, performance and productivity are also outlined in these instruments.

The Secretary may decide to increase the salary rates for each SES classification level, taking into account any of the following matters:

  • a review of the salary rates relevant to the employee’s classification, conducted in July each year
  • movements in APS SES salary levels generally
  • other relevant factors, including Australian Government employment policy and non-SES and ADF remuneration outcomes following a review at any time.

The ADF Senior Officer Remuneration Arrangement 2011–2014 is the military counterpart of the SES employment arrangement. It applies to all generalist ADF senior officers holding the rank of Brigadier (equivalent) and Major General (equivalent). All other senior officers (excluding statutory office holders) may be remunerated by way of a determination from the Defence Force Remuneration Tribunal under section 58H of the Defence Act. Other non-salary-related conditions of service are determined by the Minister of Defence under section 58B of the Defence Act.

Statutory office holders, including the Chief of the Defence Force and the Secretary, are remunerated by way of a determination from the Remuneration Tribunal under the Remuneration Tribunal Act 1973.

Performance pay

Performance-related pay is available to non-SES employees under the current Defence Enterprise Collective Agreement. Subject to performance, employees may be eligible to progress to a higher pay point within the salary band for their classification or, for those at the top of the range, be paid a 1 per cent lump-sum payment. The salary advancement is not considered performance pay; however, the lump-sum payment to employees at the top of the pay band is considered to be a form of performance pay.

An SES employee may be paid non-superannuable bonuses. A performance bonus may be paid as an incentive and reward for exceptional performance during the performance cycle. Payment of a performance bonus is dependent on the Secretary’s assessment of the SES employee’s performance. A retention bonus may be paid as an incentive to remain in an identified role.

Performance-based pay is not a feature of any existing ADF remuneration framework. Career development opportunities, including promotion, are the key recognitions of performance.

Productivity gains

The Australian Government requires improved remuneration and conditions for APS employees to be underpinned by improved productivity and performance. In accordance with the Australian Government Public Sector Workplace Bargaining Policy, Commonwealth agencies are required to ensure that they are able to demonstrate that proposed improvements to the terms and conditions of employment for agency employees are underpinned by quantifiable productivity initiatives.

Managing and developing APS staff

During 2013–14, the two key initiatives used to manage and develop Defence APS employees continued to be the APS Core Capability Framework and the Job Families Project.

The APS Core Capability Framework for Defence includes the core skills, knowledge and behaviours that are expected of all Defence APS employees to ensure the delivery of government priorities and high-quality services, now and in the future. As it is integrated into all human resources functions, the framework guides recruitment and selection, learning and development, performance management, and career development. The APS Core Capability Framework is designed to:

  • aid greater APS workforce productivity through a system that provides a more structured, coherent and consistent development of leadership, management and administrative skills for the Defence APS workforce
  • help employees to realise their own potential through a better understanding of what is required of them
  • help develop employees as leaders
  • assist supervisors in having a conversation with their employees about the capabilities required for the job.

In 2013–14, refinements were made to the content and structure of the core leadership and management programs at key career transition points and, where necessary, the programs were integrated with products developed by the Australian Public Service Commission as part of the APS Leadership and Core Skills Strategy.

The Job Families Project


In 2011, the Defence Committee tasked a project office to develop content for the Defence APS Standard Classification of Occupation (DAPSSCO) codes. The office was established in May 2012. During 2013–14, it achieved the project requirements by developing a DAPSSCO profile for each of the 2,100 codes. Each DAPSSCO profile contains an approved APS classification, an occupation description, a duty statement, selection criteria based on the Australian Public Service Commission’s Integrated Leadership System, and Essential, Highly Desirable and Desirable learning and career development requirements based on the 70/20/10 learning principle.

In developing the content of each DAPSSCO profile, the Job Families Project conducted several hundred workshops, engaging more than 1,000 EL1 and EL2 APS subject matter experts across Defence. After further consultation, the profiles were approved by the relevant Job Family Sponsor and Deputy Secretary of the Defence People Group.

The DAPSSCO profiles are available for display, wider consultation and use via the Job Families intranet page and through Employee Self-Service in PMKeyS. The Job Families intranet page contains additional information on the project, using the profiles and the Job Family Business Rules.

The work of the Job Families Project has now become business as usual and has been embedded into the Workforce Supply team.

Complaint handling and resolution

Defence employees have the right to complain if they are aggrieved by matters related to their employment. ADF members (permanent and reserve) may apply for redress of grievance under the provisions of Part XV of the Defence Force Regulations 1952. APS members may seek a review of actions under the Public Service Act 1999.

On average, between 300 and 350 formal requests for redress are lodged by ADF members annually, or about three complaints per thousand members. Similarly, APS employees lodge an average of 80 formal requests for review of an action affecting them, or about five complaints per thousand employees.

Military redress of grievance

Three hundred and ninety-five new applications for redress of grievance were received in 2013–14, an increase on the previous year (Figure 8.1). Four hundred and six applications received during the current and previous reporting periods were finalised at unit level. Of those, 304 (75 per cent) were not granted, withdrawn or not reviewable; the remainder were granted or partly granted. The primary focus of complaints remains as termination of service decisions, career management issues, and conditions of service entitlements.

A significant proportion of members who are dissatisfied with the redress decision of their commanding officer refer their complaint to their Service chief or to the CDF for further review. On average, one-third of redress of grievance applicants exercise this entitlement.

When a redress of grievance is referred to the CDF or a Service chief, priority is allocated based on the nature of the complaint. Referrals contesting termination of service decisions continue to account for a significant proportion (31 per cent) of referred complaints. These cases are given the highest priority—often at the expense of other complaints.

Figure 8.1: Military redresses of grievance received and finalised, 2009–10 to 2013–14

APS review of actions

In 2013–13, the number of applications for reviews of actions received across Defence increased by 15 per cent from the previous year (Figure 8.2). This increase is attributed to an increased awareness by employees that they are able to have their disputed performance assessments reviewed under review of actions provisions.

The most common subjects of applications for reviews were:

  • performance feedback or assessment and salary or performance progression
  • the handling and outcomes of unacceptable behaviour complaints by line management
  • access to leave or other conditions of employment.

Figure 8.2: APS review of actions applications received and finalised, 2009–10 to 2013–14

Unacceptable behaviour

Defence personnel can make a complaint about any incident of unacceptable behaviour they have experienced or witnessed in the workplace. Defence policy requires that any such complaint be reported and recorded on the Defence Complaints Management, Tracking and Reporting System (ComTrack). Guidance and support are available to ensure that complaints are managed and resolved appropriately.

All Defence personnel are required to undertake annual workplace behaviour training, which includes information about expectations of behaviour and guidance on dealing with complaints of unacceptable behaviour. Given the nature of service in the ADF, for most ADF members this policy applies to their behaviour 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

In 2013–14, 827 complaints of unacceptable behaviour were recorded in ComTrack (Figure 8.3). This was an increase in reporting from previous years and was due in part to continued improvements to ComTrack and the continuing encouragement of personnel to report any incident of unacceptable behaviour.

During the year, Defence maintained a focus on encouraging commanders and managers to finalise old cases where the incident had already been dealt with but the case had not been formally finalised in ComTrack.

Complaints of this type fall into six main categories:

  • abuse of power
  • discrimination
  • harassment
  • sexual harassment
  • workplace bullying
  • inappropriate workplace relationships and conflict of interest.

Complaints alleging sexual misconduct (including sexual harassment) are also discussed in the section of this report that deals with the Sexual Misconduct Prevention and Response Office (SeMPRO).

On average, between 10 per cent and 15 per cent of unacceptable behaviour incidents are serious enough to result in a formal disciplinary or administrative outcome. Most complaints continue to be resolved informally. Fewer than 1 per cent of the Defence workforce makes complaints of this type.

Figure 8.3: Unacceptable behaviour complaints reported as received and finalised, 2009–10 to 2013–14

Work health and safety performance

Defence is committed to providing a safe, healthy and positive working experience for all workers to enable them to contribute to delivering the organisation’s capability requirements.

The Defence Work Health and Safety (WHS) Strategy 2012–2017 was developed to drive continuous improvement of WHS systems across the whole of Defence. It was released on 1 January 2012 to coincide with the implementation of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011.

Defence continues to implement a comprehensive program of work in accordance with the requirements of the Work Health and Safety Act and Regulations, the Defence WHS Strategy, the corporate Safety Management System and the principles of continuous improvement.

The Defence WHS Management System is based on the premise that the business owner of any platform, fleet, process, system, place or workforce is responsible for identifying hazards and controlling risks associated with it. Responsibilities overlap, and business owners are required to communicate, consult and coordinate to ensure that all hazards are identified and risks controlled. Business owners are located in all Groups and Services.

This section of the annual report is focused on initiatives that support the communication, consultation and coordination requirements. Key activities during 2013–14 included work on the organisation’s WHS information system, hazardous substances and policy development.

SENTINEL


Defence worked towards implementing SENTINEL, a whole-of-Defence WHS management information system, to improve the availability, timeliness and quality of WHS information. SENTINEL is scheduled for implementation in the second half of 2014. It supports a key objective from the Defence WHS Strategic Plan.

SENTINEL will provide decision makers at all levels with access to quality WHS information to empower them to eliminate or manage hazards across the Defence lifecycle and upon the disposal of assets.

To support the successful implementation of the system, four training packages were developed and will be released for completion before the system is implemented.



Hazardous chemicals enforceable undertaking

The enforceable undertaking placed on Defence by Comcare for the management of hazardous chemicals was lifted in November 2013. This was the culmination of three years of work by Defence to implement a consistent, comprehensive and inclusive system for the management of hazardous chemicals.

Defence is committed to continued improvement in hazardous chemicals management through an enduring hazard reduction program.

Policy development

A key activity for Defence is the continuing review and updating of policies to be compliant with the Work Health and Safety Act and Regulations. In 2013–14, a significant number of policies were reviewed for release in 2014–15.

Comcare interventions and investigations

The Work Health and Safety Act’s requirement for a proactive approach to safety has changed the methodology used by Comcare. Comcare now undertakes interventions or inspections based on known high risk. The new legislation has not negated the use of improvement and prohibition notices. To assist Comcare to develop a workable arrangement for its new approach, Defence and Comcare have agreed on a protocol for the management of interventions. The number of proactive interventions is determined by the regulator’s strategic focus and available resources.

During 2013–14, the number of Comcare interventions (230) increased only slightly from the 2012–13 figure (228), (311 in 2011–12).

Other work health and safety achievements

The commitment by Defence and its leaders to improving the organisation’s safety culture is achieving results. This effort is overseen by Defence’s WHS Committee. Continued focus on safety in the design and planning phases of all Defence activities will maintain the positive cultural trend.

The number of Comcare notifiable incidents continued to decline in 2013–14 (Figure 8.4), while the number of Comcare notices remained steady (Figure 8.5).

Figure 8.4: Work health and safety—statistics and notifiable incidents, 2010–11 to 2013–14

Notes

Defence completes a data quality process each year. For example, the process removes duplicated reports and ensures that reports are recorded in the correct financial year.

  1. Incidents are recorded based on the date of the incident. Delays in the reporting of incidents affect these statistics.
  2. Comcare notifiable deaths are all deaths, excluding those that were known to be combat related.

Figure 8.5: Work health and safety—Comcare notices, 2010–11 to 2013–14

Notes

The only notice issued in 2013–14 was a variation to an improvement notice to operate special plant that was originally issued in 2012.

  1. Improvement notices—based on incidents and occurrences that contravene the WHS legislation.
  2. Prohibition notices—issued to remove an immediate threat to the health or safety of workers.
  3. Do not disturb notices—issued for a specific period of time to remove a threat to the health or safety of personnel.
  4. Enforceable undertaking—Comcare may accept a written undertaking to fulfil an obligation under the WHS Act.
  5. Written request—issued where the employer is to provide particulars of action proposed to be taken as a result of a Comcare report and/or any improvement or prohibition notice.

Headcount staffing figures

This section provides workforce information as at 30 June 2014 and outlines changes in the workforce that occurred during 2013–14. It includes numbers of people, employment categories, locations and gender information; the information is based on headcount.

At 30 June 2014, Defence had 78,137 permanent employees, comprising 57,036 permanent ADF members and 21,101 ongoing APS employees. An additional 93 APS employees were employed on a non-ongoing basis.

During 2013–14, the permanent ADF strength increased by 877 to 57,036. The growth in the permanent workforce is expected to continue over the next few years until the ADF reaches its Average Funded Strength guidance. The Reserve strength decreased by 1,367 to 24,028 (including those members on continuous full-time service and Active Reserve). The total ADF workforce was 81,064, and included 18,870 Navy permanent and Reserve members, 43,591 Army permanent and Reserve members and 18,603 Air Force permanent and Reserve members. At 30 June 2014, 1,474 Reservists were also Defence APS employees.

At 30 June 2014, there were 5,305 APS employees in DMO and 15,889 in the remainder of Defence. This number includes all APS employees recorded as paid, unpaid, full-time, part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing.

Table 8.13: Defence workforce headcount, 30 June 2013 and 30 June 2014

Navy

Army

Air Force

ADF

APS[1]

30 June 2013[2]

Permanent ADF[3]

13,513

28,579

14,067

56,159

Department of Defence

16,540

DMO

5,565

Total at 30 June 2013

13,513

28,579

14,067

56,159

22,105

30 June 2014

Separations[3]

Permanent ADF

1,145

3,553

780

5,478

Department of Defence

1,065

DMO

319

Subtotal

1,145

3,553

780

5,478

1,384

Net transfers[4]

Defence

37

DMO

–37

Subtotal

Additions

Permanent ADF[3]

1,393

4,019

943

6,355

Department of Defence

377

DMO

96

Subtotal

1,393

4,019

943

6,355

473

Employee numbers

Permanent ADF[3]

13,761

29,045

14,230

57,036

Department of Defence

15,889

DMO

5,305

Total at 30 June 2014

13,761

29,045

14,230

57,036

21,194

Change

248

466

163

877

–911

Notes

Figures in this table show employee numbers (substantive headcount).

  1. Includes paid and unpaid employees, which covers full-time, part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees.
  2. Some 30 June 2013 strength figures have been adjusted from those reported in the Defence Annual Report 2012–13 to account for retrospective transactions.
  3. Does not include Reservists or those undertaking continuous full-time service.
  4. Net transfers represent the net effect of transfer of APS employees between Department of Defence and the DMO. Some of these transfers are the result of movements under the shared services program.

Table 8.14: ADF permanent and Reserve forces and APS, by gender and employment category, 30 June 2013 and 30 June 2014

 

30 June 2013[1]

30 June 2014

Men

%

Women

%

Men

%

Women

%

Navy permanent

Trained force

Officers

1,997

14.8

473

3.5

2,027

14.7

495

3.6

Other ranks

6,817

50.4

1,521

11.3

6,963

50.6

1,548

11.2

Training force

Officers

590

4.4

168

1.2

614

4.5

155

1.1

Other ranks

1,622

12.0

325

2.4

1,596

11.6

363

2.6

Total Navy

11,026

81.6

2,487

18.4

11,200

81.4

2,561

18.6

Army permanent

Trained force

Officers

4,533

15.9

761

2.7

4,536

15.6

799

2.8

Other ranks

17,952

62.8

1,934

6.8

17,399

59.9

2,008

6.9

Training force

Officers

771

2.7

187

0.7

815

2.8

200

0.7

Other ranks

2,189

7.7

252

0.9

2,873

9.9

415

1.4

Total Army

25,445

89.0

3,134

11.0

25,623

88.2

3,422

11.8

Air Force permanent

Trained force

Officers

3,273

23.3

780

5.5

3,353

23.6

845

5.9

Other ranks

7,410

52.7

1,422

10.1

7,295

51.3

1,439

10.1

Training force

Officers

510

3.6

152

1.1

529

3.7

158

1.1

Other ranks

412

2.9

108

0.8

468

3.3

143

1.0

Total Air Force

11,605

82.5

2,462

17.5

11,645

81.8

2,585

18.2

ADF permanent

Trained force

Officers

9,803

17.5

2,014

3.6

9,916

17.4

2,139

3.8

Other ranks

32,179

57.3

4,877

8.7

31,657

55.5

4,995

8.8

Training force

Officers

1,871

3.3

507

0.9

1,958

3.4

513

0.9

Other ranks

4,223

7.5

685

1.2

4,937

8.7

921

1.6

Total ADF permanent

48,076

85.6

8,083

14.4

48,468

85.0

8,568

15.0

Reserves[2]

Navy

4,054

16.0

1,051

4.1

4,058

16.9

1,051

4.4

Army

14,005

55.1

2,154

8.5

12,617

52.5

1,929

8.0

Air Force

3,263

12.8

868

3.4

3,483

14.5

890

3.7

Total Reserves

21,322

84.0

4,073

16.0

20,158

83.9

3,870

16.1

APS[3]

APS (Dept. of Defence)

9,343

42.3

7,197

32.6

9,010

42.5

6,879

32.5

APS (DMO)

3,766

17.0

1,799

8.1

3,573

16.9

1,732

8.2

Total APS

13,109

59.3

8,996

40.7

12,583

59.4

8,611

40.6

Notes

Figures in this table show employee numbers (substantive headcount). Percentage figures are calculated against the respective totals. Percentages may not sum due to rounding.

  1. Some 30 June 2013 figures have been adjusted from those reported in the Defence Annual Report 2012–13 to account for retrospective transactions.
  2. Reserves include all active members (training, deployed and performing other part-time military work commitments) and those on continuous full-time service.
  3. Figures include paid, unpaid, full-time, part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees. The 30 June 2014 figures for APS include 1,474 APS employees who are also counted as Reserve members.

Table 8.15: APS personnel, by gender and category, 30 June 2013 and 30 June 2014

30 June 2013[1]

30 June 2014

Full-time

Part-time[2]

Total

Full-time

Part-time[2]

Total

Ongoing employees

Men

12,846

180

13,026

12,309

217

12,526

Women

7,876

1,035

8,911

7,452

1,123

8,575

Total ongoing

20,722

1,215

21,937

19,761

1,340

21,101

Non-ongoing employees

Men

81

2

83

48

9

57

Women

73

12

85

34

2

36

Total non-ongoing

154

14

168

82

11

93

Total employees

Men

12,927

182

13,109

12,357

226

12,583

Women

7,949

1,047

8,996

7,486

1,125

8,611

Total

20,876

1,229

22,105

19,843

1,351

21,194

Notes

Figures in this table show employee numbers (substantive headcount). Figures include paid and unpaid employees.

  1. Some 30 June 2013 figures have been adjusted from those reported in the Defence Annual Report 2012–13 to account for retrospective transactions.
  2. Part-time employees are those with weekly hours less than the standard hours, not those in part-time positions.

Table 8.16: Defence workforce, by employment location, 30 June 2014

NSW

Vic.[1]

Qld

SA

WA

Tas.

NT

ACT[2]

Overseas[3]

Total

Permanent forces[4]

Navy

6,495

1,544

927

84

2,209

19

668

1,533

282

13,761

Army

5,919

3,342

11,236

1,434

849

68

3,280

2,639

278

29,045

Air Force

4,753

986

3,013

1,941

367

7

979

1,927

257

14,230

Subtotal

17,167

5,872

15,176

3,459

3,425

94

4,927

6,099

817

57,036

Reserve forces[5]

Navy

1,376

531

782

196

869

165

147

1,039

4

5,109

Army

3,842

2,604

3,285

1,219

1,537

442

595

1,020

2

14,546

Air Force

1,078

383

1,182

416

279

51

119

865

0

4,373

Subtotal

6,296

3,518

5,249

1,831

2,685

658

861

2,924

6

24,028

Total ADF

23,463

9,390

20,425

5,290

6,110

752

5,788

9,023

823

81,064

APS[6]

APS (Dept. of Defence)

2,045

2,642

1,122

1,986

367

87

308

7,254

78

15,889

APS (DMO)

1,212

1,503

330

294

205

0

27

1,724

10

5,305

Total APS

3,257

4,145

1,452

2,280

572

87

335

8,978

88

21,194

Notes

Figures in this table show employee numbers (substantive headcount).

  1. Victorian figures include employees located in Albury (NSW).
  2. ACT figures include employees located in Jervis Bay (Cwlth), Queanbeyan (NSW) and Bungendore (NSW).
  3. Employees posted for reasons including long-term duty, training, exchange and liaison.
  4. Includes paid and unpaid employees.
  5. Includes Reserves on continuous full-time service.
  6. Includes paid and unpaid employees, which covers full-time, part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees. The 30 June 2014 figures for APS include 1,474 APS employees who are also counted as Reserve members.

Table 8.17: Star-ranked officers, 30 June 2014

Total star rank

2013–14 promotions

2013–14 separations

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Four star

Navy

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Army

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Air Force

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Three star

Navy

4

0

4

2

0

2

0

0

0

Army

3

0

3

1

0

1

0

0

0

Air Force

2

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

Two star

Navy

15

1

16

3

0

3

0

0

0

Army

16

1

17

3

1

4

3

0

3

Air Force

10

0

10

4

0

4

2

0

2

One star

Navy

38

1

39

6

0

6

3

0

3

Army

52

6

58

9

2

11

4

1

5

Air Force

36

4

40

5

1

6

6

0

6

Total

177

13

190

33

4

37

18

1

19

Table 8.18: APS Senior Executive Service employees, 30 June 2014

Total SES

2013–14 engagements[1]

2013–14 separations[2]

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Senior Executive

Secretary

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Band 3

12

3

15

2

0

2

0

0

0

Band 2

24

6

30

1

0

1

5

1

6

Band 1

62

28

90

0

0

0

3

4

7

Chief of Division

Grade 3

2

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

Grade 2

8

3

11

0

0

0

3

0

3

Senior Executive

Relief staff

14

11

25

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

123

51

174

3

0

3

11

5

16

Notes

  1. Includes resignations, retirements, redundancies and transfers to other agencies.
  2. Non-SES officers who are temporarily acting in SES/Chief of Division positions due to temporary or longer term vacancies.

The Navy and Air Force separation rates have been relatively stable over the last five years. The Army separation rate was at a historic low in June 2010, but has since risen back to within the long term average of 10 to 13 per cent. Army has historically had a higher separation rate than the other two Services. A significant part of the difference is that Army has a less technical workforce than the other two Services; the result is that a greater proportion of Army members are enlisted with shorter service obligations, and they therefore turnover at a higher rate.