Uncontrolled when Printed
S3C12 - GROUND HANDLING AND FUELLING OPERATIONS
Table of Contents
1. This chapter identifies the general precautions and actions to minimise the safety risk to both aircraft and personnel when ground handling aircraft, other than taxiing. It includes the precautions and actions required when operating Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and vehicles around aircraft. It details additional precautions to be taken in particular environments, including aircraft arrival and departure.
GROUND HANDLING OF AIRCRAFT
2. The ground handling of aircraft is only to be undertaken by appropriately qualified personnel forming a correctly structured ground handling team. The ground handling operation is to be conducted in accordance with standard procedures with consideration given to local environmental conditions. The ground handling supervisor, and in some cases the responsible aircrew member, is responsible for the safe conduct of a ground handling operation.
AIRCRAFT TOWING OPERATIONS
3. Aircraft towing operations must be conducted by trained and authorised personnel. An aircraft towing team must consist of:
Aircraft Towing Precautions
4. The towing supervisor is to ensure that the team members are to be briefed on the intended activity and adhere to the following precautions:
Towing at Night or in Poor Visibility
5. The following additional precautions are to be followed at night or in poor visibility:
Towing in Strong Winds
6. Additional precautions are to be taken to ensure the safety of the aircraft and personnel. Precautions should also be taken to secure GSE and other loose items in the vicinity of the aircraft.
Towing on Air Capable Ships
7. The movement of rotary wing aircraft on air capable ships is to be carried out in accordance with ABR 5419—Ship/Helicopter Operations Manual.
GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
8. GSE is to be positioned safely so as not to pose a hazard to the aircraft and is returned to the appropriate storage when not in use.
Self-Propelled Ground Support Equipment
9. All operators of self-propelled GSE must be authorised.
10. Self-propelled GSE is only to be used for the purpose it was designed.
11. Self-propelled GSE manoeuvred within 2 metres of an aircraft is to be marshalled by a safety person.
12. The Self-propelled GSE operator is to ensure that there is adequate clearance between the GSE and the aircraft and is to advise the safety person of his intentions.
13. The safety person is to advise the Self-propelled GSE operator of the proximity to aircraft or any impending situation.
14. When parked within 2 metres of an aircraft self propelled GSE is to have the wheels chocked.
Mechanically Operated Vehicles
15. The movement of mechanically operated vehicles within 3 metres of an aircraft is to be controlled by a marshaller, except where local condition and instructions negate this requirement.
16. Vehicles are not to approach within 15 meters of an aircraft undergoing fuelling operations.
17. Vehicles with petrol engines are not to be operated in hangars unless authorised by the SMM or delegate.
18. Equipment or vehicles with engines running are not to be left unattended.
ELECTRICAL GROUND POWER APPLICATION
19. Personnel who apply/remove ground power to/from aircraft must be appropriately authorised and competent to do so.
20. Marshalling signals used in the ADF are in accordance with the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Standardisation Agreement (STANAG) No. 3117—Aircraft Marshalling Signals or where there is no NATO designated signal, Air and Space Interoperability Council (ASIC) Air Standard (AIR STD) 25/52A—Marshalling Signals for Fixed Wing and Rotary Wing Aircraft. The current ADF approved and authorised marshalling signals are illustrated in Annexes A, B, C and D.
21. Marshalling personnel must ensure the area to where an aircraft is to be marshalled is capable of accepting the aircraft, both in size and weight footprint, is clear of obstructions and, where possible, clear of loose objects.
22. The Marshaller must always be clearly visible to the aircraft captain whilst remaining a safe distance from propellers, rotors, jet intakes, jet exhausts. When marshalling, the marshaller must not walk backwards, but must be able to escape should the aircraft brakes fail.
23. Where more than one marshaller is required, one marshaller must be nominated as leader of the marshalling team. The leader is to act as a safety guard/director and ensure that all members of the marshalling team understand their responsibilities.
24. Where the taxi route and parking position is clearly defined, readily visible to the aircraft captain and the approaches are clear, only one marshaller would normally be required. Where the taxi route and parking position is not clearly defined or readily visible to the aircraft captain, or the approaches are not clear, more than one marshaller would normally be required.
25. Marshalling Clothing. Aircraft marshallers are to wear a distinctive vest of fluorescent international orange or yellow colour to assist the aircraft captain to readily recognise them. Marshallers are also required to wear approved PPE in accordance with Section 8 Chapter 2—General Aircraft Safety. During marshalling of aircraft, marshallers are not to wear loose clothing or headgear and are to ensure other items, eg pens/pencils are secure on their person.
26. Wands and Bats. By day, marshalling signals may be given with hands, or using pairs of brightly coloured bats or gloves. During the hours of darkness, each marshaller is to use a pair of approved marshalling wands. Both wands must be illuminated at all times when directing an aircraft.
Marshalling Aircraft on Air Capable Ships
27. Marshalling of rotary wing aircraft on air capable ships is to be in accordance with ABR 5419.
Aircraft Arresting Cables
28. Hand signals in Annex D are specific to runway parties disengaging an aircraft after a hook cable arrestment. As the normal aircraft ‘BRAKES ON’ and ‘BRAKES OFF’ signals may be difficult to see over the distance between the person operating the cable rewind equipment and the person giving the signals, the following signals have been adopted to rewind equipment brakes:
29. The team attending aircraft departure is to ensure:
30. The team attending aircraft arrival is to ensure:
WHEEL AND BRAKE FIRES
31. The potential for serious injury at wheel and brake fires is such that untrained personnel should not attempt fire fighting action unless there is a danger to life or serious injury and they have assessed the risk to their own safety. Only trained personnel with correct equipment should conduct fire fighting actions.
32. The following precautions are to be adhered to in the event of a wheel or brake fire:
AIRCRAFT FUELLING OPERATIONS
33. Aircraft refuelling operations must only be performed by trained and authorised personnel. Personnel who do not have aircraft type authorisation to perform refuels, but who understand the hazards associated with working with aircraft fuel, may be used to assist authorised personnel to perform aircraft refuelling. The assistance may extend to delivery of fuel into the aircraft tanks.
34. At all times, the person with aircraft type authorisation is responsible for the aircraft refuelling operation. This responsibility extends to directing the refuelling operation and ensuring the safety of any personnel used to assist the authorised person to perform the refuelling operation.
35. Prior to using personnel to assist in aircraft refuelling operations, the authorised person must satisfy themselves that the non-type authorised person understands the hazards associated with working with aircraft fuel. The authorised person must provide personnel assisting with the refuelling operation with specific aircraft type information relevant to performing the aircraft refuelling operation and provide direction during the refuelling operation. Personnel used to assist in refuelling operations must comply with any aircraft specific direction given by the authorised person. The authorised person is responsible for opening and closing any panels and completing any documentation associated with the aircraft refuelling operation.
General Safety Precautions
36. The following precautions are to be adhered to when conducting aircraft fuelling operations:
37. Refuelling of aircraft with engines or rotors running is classed as ‘Hot fuelling’. Due to the inherently hazardous nature of hot fuelling the following additional precautions are to be taken:
Refuelling Operations in Hangars
38. A fuelling operation is only to take place in a hangar when:
Refuelling at Sea
39. Fuelling of aircraft on air capable ships must also conform to the requirements of ABR 5419.
Refuelling Bonding Procedures
40. The bonding sequence required when fuelling of aircraft must be in accordance with AAP 7045.002–1(AM1) ADF Aircraft Wiring and Bonding Manual Section 2 Chapter 14—Earthing and Bonding of Aircraft and Ground Support Equipment. The following procedures must be adhered to during fuelling operations:
|Top of Page|