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Chapter 6 - People

Workforce overview

The workforce overview contains statistical information on the average workforce strength during 2012-13.

ADF Permanent Force

Table 6.1 shows details of ADF Permanent Force average funded strength for 2012-13. The ADF average funded strength achievement was 56,607 in 2012-13, a decrease of 1,387 from 2011-12. These figures include ADF Reservists on continuous full-time service.

Average funded strength achievement for continuous full-time service in 2012-13 was 948 (comprising Navy 360, Army 522 and Air Force 66)-the same total as in 2011-12, although distributed differently between the Services.

The decrease in ADF permanent strength is primarily the result of labour market conditions leading to increased separations, as civilian employment opportunities for ADF personnel remain strong. These labour market conditions have also led to increased competition within the available recruitment pool.

Table 6.1 - ADF Permanent Force average funded strength (including DMO)

Table 6.1 - ADF Permanent Force average funded strength (including DMO) ¹
2011-12 Actual 2012-13 Budget estimate 2012-13 Revised estimate ² 2012-13 Actual Variation %
Navy 14,054 14,260 13,772 13,760 −12 −0.09
Army 29,697 30,270 29,017 28,928 −89 −0.31
Air Force 14,243 14,106 13,962 13,919 −43 −0.31
Total average funded strength 57,994 58,636 56,751 56,607 −144 −0.25
Notes
  1. Figures in this table are average funded strengths; they are not a headcount. Reservists undertaking full-time service are included in the figures. Employees on forms of leave without pay are not included.
  2. As published in the Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements 2012-13.

ADF Reserves

Table 6.2 shows the number of Reservists who rendered paid service during 2012-13, noting that the number of days each Reservist works in a year can vary substantially depending on personal circumstances and organisational need. In 2012-13, 20,708 Reservists undertook paid service, 1,364 fewer than in 2011-12.

Table 6.2 - ADF Reserve paid strength (including DMO)

Table 6.2 - ADF Reserve paid strength (including DMO) ¹²
2011-12 Actual 2012-13 Budget estimate 2012-13 Revised estimate ³ 2012-13 Actual Variation %
Navy 2,001 2,100 2,100 2,229 129 6.1
Army 17,251 16,550 17,090 15,464 −1,626 −9.5
Air Force 2,820 3,000 3,000 3,015 15 0.5
Total paid Reserves 22,072 21,650 22,190 20,708 −1,482 −6.7
Notes
  1. Reservists on full-time service in the Permanent Force are included in this table.
  2. Includes the High Readiness Reserve Force, Active Reserve Force and Specialist Reserve Force.
  3. As published in the Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements 2012-13.
  4. This figure, previously reported be the Army, inadvertantly included all reservists rather than only those who undertook paid service. Hence the large variation from the actual figure was achieved.

APS workforce

Table 6.3 shows details of the APS average strength, expressed as average full-time equivalent, for 2012-13. The APS average strength achievement was 21,534 in 2012-13. This is a decrease in average strength of 284 from the 2011-12 figure of 21,818. The actual decrease through the year 2012-13 was 1,278 full-time equivalent, from 22,284 on 1 July 2012 to 21,006 on 30 June 2013.

The decrease is largely a result of reductions associated with Strategic Reform Program initiatives, including the first tranche of the additional reductions of 1,000 announced in the 2011-12 Portfolio Budget Statements.

The decrease is partially offset by increases to the workforce associated with the 2009 Defence White Paper, and the civilianisation and conversion of contractors to less costly APS employees as part of the Strategic Reform Program. Another contributing factor to the increase is the Defence Materiel Organisation's combined workforce model. Under this model the DMO can use the funding from vacant ADF positions and fill them with APS staff.

Table 6.3 - Civilian (APS and contractor) average full-time equivalent

Table 6.3 - Civilian (APS and contractor) average full-time equivalent ¹
2011-12 Actual 2012-13 Budget estimate ² 2012-13 Revised estimate ³ 2012-13 Actual Variation %
APS-Defence 15,829 15,651 15,731 15,786 55 0.3
APS-DMO 5,989 5,544 5,406 5,389 −17 −0.3
APS-DMO-ADF backfill 384 359 −25 −6.5
Total APS 21,818 21,195 21,521 21,534 13 0.1
Defence contractors 467 488 385 358 −27 −7.0
DMO contractors 45 48 48 33 −15 −31.3
Total contractors 512 536 433 391 −42 −9.7
Total civilian workforce 22,330 21,731 21,954 21,925 −29 −0.1
Notes
  1. Figures in the table are average full time equivalent; they are not a headcount.
  2. As published in the Portfolio Budget Statements 2012-13.
  3. As published in the Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements 2012-13.
  4. The DMO manages its workforce under a combined ADF, APS and contractor model. Under this arrangement, DMO can use funding from unfilled ADF positions to fill and resource positions with APS staff.

Managing and developing staff

Two key initiatives used to manage and develop staff to achieve departmental objectives through 2012-13 are the Job Families Project and the APS Core Capability Framework.

The Job Families Project Management Office was established in June 2012 to develop the content for all Defence APS Standard Classification of Occupations codes within the Defence Job Families. The stated objectives for the office are to:

  • fully implement all Defence Job Families
  • centrally coordinate the finalisation of all Job Families content
  • align the content to inform the learning and development elements of the Performance Feedback and Development Scheme
  • develop occupation profiles to shape job descriptions, duties and selection criteria for recruitment.

The outcome of the Job Families Project will see the integration of occupation profiles into existing human resources processes to inform and provide a consistent base for activities such as recruitment, performance agreements, learning and development, career progression, talent management, succession planning, and workforce and succession planning. Critically, Job Families provides clarity about positions, not occupants. The occupation profiles do not affect the management accountabilities or relationships of Defence APS employees within the groups.

The Defence APS Core Capability Framework refers to the skills, knowledge and behaviours that are expected of all Defence employees to ensure delivery of government priorities and high-quality services, now and in the future. As it is integrated into all human resources functions, the framework guides recruitment and selection, learning and development, performance management, and career development. The APS Core Capability Framework is designed to:

  • aid greater APS workforce productivity through a system that provides a more structured, coherent and consistent development of leadership, management and administrative skills for the Defence APS workforce
  • help employees to realise their own potential through a better understanding of what is required of them
  • help develop employees as leaders
  • assist supervisors with having a conversation with their employees about the capabilities required for the job.

Together, these two projects provide Defence with appropriate tools to assess the effectiveness of its workforce in relation to providing the required capability; and to take appropriate mitigation action as well as rewarding effective staff.

Education and training

The Australian Defence College is continuing to evolve in order to support Defence's people capability requirements through education and training. The college is responsive to the specified needs of all Defence groups and Services through the management and delivery of ADF and APS education and training within Defence. The Services have responsibility for Australian Defence Force training requirements.

The Defence Learning Branch, formally transferred to the Vice Chief of Defence Force Group on 1 July 2012, is responsible to the Commander of the Australian Defence College. This institutional change has brought together joint professional military education; Defence education and training relating to shared services reform; and policy management and joint, common and civilian delivery of education and training. The aim of the new structure is to achieve better governance, synchronisation, and management and delivery of specified joint, common and APS learning outcomes.

In addition to the delivery of training and education courses, significant achievements during 2012-13 included the development of a Defence-endorsed conceptual framework for joint professional military education, and the commencement of a shared services program that will see the Australian Defence College progressively take responsibility for the provision of education and training services for all Defence groups by July 2014.

Diversity in Defence

Defence continues to support the Government's commitment to improving the representation of diverse groups within the workplace. To maintain competitiveness in the employment marketplace and sustain Defence capability through its people, Defence is striving to create an organisation that is both attractive to, and representative of, the Australian community that it serves. Defence recognises that it must behave and be seen as an inclusive employer to attract not only members of diversity groups, but also those who seek an inclusive employer.

In order to achieve diversity, Defence has implemented a series of initiatives that are designed to improve the recruitment and retention of women, Indigenous Australians, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and people with disability.

Support for diversity and inclusion is a priority for Defence's leadership. Defence has consolidated its approach to diversity through the creation of a centre of diversity expertise.

As recommended in the Review of employment pathways for APS women in the Department of Defence, Defence has established the Defence Gender Equality and Diversity Council, to consider diversity matters exclusively. The Defence Civilian Committee, also established this year, has considered many issues relating to diversity and inclusion specifically in the APS.

A statement of commitment to a diverse workforce and inclusive workplace culture has been issued jointly by the Secretary and the CDF. Further, a holistic diversity strategy has been developed and endorsed. Development of a diversity and inclusion implementation plan has begun; the plan will draw together the many elements of managing and increasing diversity and inclusion already underway across the organisation and will assist in identifying further opportunities.

Women in Defence

Defence has a strong commitment to gender diversity and is changing its structural supports to better achieve and sustain a workforce that truly exhibits gender diversity in the long term.

Two reviews, the Review into the treatment of women in the Australian Defence Force (Phase Two), and the Review of employment pathways for APS women in the Department of Defence, established a strong capability imperative to improve the treatment of, and enhance career opportunities for, women in Defence. A separate report on women in the ADF is included for the first time this year as a supplement to this annual report. Progress on the implementation of the review of employment pathways for APS women in Defence is outlined in this section.

The review was completed in August 2011 and implementation of its recommendations began in April 2012. There were 20 recommendations, framed around six themes, all of which were accepted by the Defence Committee. As at June 2013, 18 of the 20 recommendations had been completed in the first phase of implementation, with the remaining two recommendations transferring to a second phase.

The recommendations that are completed or closed are shown in Table 6.4.

Table 6.4 - Completed or closed recommendations on employment pathways for APS women in Defence, by theme, as at 30 June 2013

Table 6.4 - Completed or closed recommendations on employment pathways for APS women in Defence, by theme, as at 30 June 2013
Theme 1-Committed leadership support
Developed a diversity statement (recommendation 1.1)
Established a diversity council and included diversity as a Key Performance Indicator in senior leadership performance agreements (recommendation 1.2)
Established an SES 2/3 rotation program (recommendation 1.3)
Delivered unconscious bias awareness training to the senior leadership (recommendation 1.4)
Increased number of women on senior leadership committees (recommendation 1.5)
Theme 2-Talent management and succession planning
Established a talent management program for EL1 staff which includes facilitated shadowing and coaching (recommendation 2.1)
Introduced the talent management program for EL1 staff including job rotation and an over-representation of women (recommendation 2.2)
Consolidated the various graduate programs (recommendation 2.3)
Theme 3-Workplace flexibilities
Workplace flexibilities agenda established on the Gender Equality and Diversity Council as a strategic priority (recommendation 3.1)
Major review of customer access channels for workplace flexibilities information conducted and content revised (recommendation 3.1)
Theme 4-Attraction, recruitment and selection
Developed online recruitment guide, and mandated gender balance on recruitment panels (recommendation 4.3)
Developed a common induction process to raise awareness of staff and manager responsibilities and obligations under APS employment (recommendation 4.4)
Theme 5-Support and development
Created senior women's mentoring and networking initiatives (recommendations 5.1 and 5.2)
Theme 6-Governance and infrastructure
Updated equity and diversity training (recommendation 6.1)

A significant achievement of Phase 1 implementation was the establishment of the Gender Equality and Diversity Council. This council is chaired by the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force, and meets quarterly to provide strategic oversight and guidance on issues relating to workforce diversity, including the development and implementation of initiatives that increase the representation and opportunities for women in Defence.

Another achievement was the effective leveraging of reforms to shared human resources services to establish the Centre of Diversity Expertise. The new centre has responsiblity for proactively driving diversity initiatives with a focus on promoting diversity as a positive attribute for a workforce rather than on compliance principles (as was previously the case). The centre now includes gender diversity as a focus of activity and will be responsible for the implementation of the second phase of the review recommendations.

The second phase of implementation will see the roll-out of additional strategies targeting the ongoing barriers to increasing the representation of APS women in Defence, particularly at executive and SES levels.

Defence recognises that the representation of APS women in senior leadership positions and decisionmaking bodies is fundamental to achieving the positive organisational culture change intended under Pathway to Change; greater diversity brings a range of views and more creativity to decision making at the highest levels. There is further work to do before we reach or overtake the APS average of 38 per cent in senior executive roles. Defence is, however, moving in a positive direction; as at 30 June 2013, women represented 28 per cent of the Defence Senior Executive Service, up from 24 per cent when the McGregor review was released in 2011.

A significant factor contributing to the low numbers of women in the Defence senior leadership has been a shortage of women in the executive level (EL) ranks. Women currently represent 32 per cent at EL1 and 21 per cent at EL2 levels. On the positive side, this proportion is up from 2011, when the McGregor review revealed only 30 per cent female representation at the EL1 level and 18.5 per cent at the EL2 level.

Improving the attraction, recruitment and retention of women in the executive level feeder group will be a key factor to increasing the representation of women in SES positions in Defence. To achieve this, and to continue the momentum in implementing the review, initiatives over the next 12 months will include, for example:

  • ensuring balanced gender representation on selection panels
  • developing a Defence-wide mentoring strategy to enhance access to current programs while also providing personnel with the opportunity to access a mentoring relationship where there is no specific program in place
  • delivering training directed at addressing a lack of confidence in women, which was identified as a critical strategy to progression in a recent research paper from the Australia and New Zealand School of Government
  • implementing a graduate recruitment strategy with a specific focus on women
  • furthering opportunities for flexible work arrangements, including a job-share register.

The Defence Civilian Committee will continue to oversee progress, and regular senior leadership conversations regarding the future directions of gender diversity in Defence will occur through the Gender Equality and Diversity Council.

Indigenous participation and engagement

Defence has worked to increase Indigenous representation across its workforce and to raise more awareness of Defence career opportunities in Indigenous communities. The Directorate of Indigenous Affairs, within Defence's Centre of Diversity Expertise, oversees Indigenous recruitment, retention and community engagement programs to meet the needs of the Australian Defence Force and the Australian Public Service. The strategies employed by the Directorate of Indigenous Affairs are defined in the Defence Reconciliation Action Plan 2010-2014 and the Defence Indigenous Employment Strategy 2012-2017.

Some initiatives now in place through the Indigenous Employment Strategy to attract and recruit Indigenous candidates in rural and urban areas include establishing Indigenous employment targets for both the ADF and APS workforces; conducting Indigenous development and pre-recruitment courses; forging closer relationships with universities to engage Indigenous students with Defence; and appointing a number of ADF Indigenous liaison officers and establishing APS Indigenous recruitment officer positions. A concept for a host family program has been developed to assist Indigenous employees working away from their communities to link with an Indigenous or culturally aware non-Indigenous family in location.

Defence supports a community engagement role that includes activities as a part of National Reconciliation Week and NAIDOC Week. These activities provide an opportunity for all Defence people to celebrate the contributions and achievements of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders to the Defence community and the wider public. Defence is engaged with many local Aboriginal organisations through the Jawun Program, which provides Defence with the opportunity to support smaller organisations by sharing the skills and knowledge of the executive-level workforce.

Defence has partnered with the Australian National University in a project aiming to research and document the role of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the defence of Australia. This five-year research project will assist Defence to recognise its Indigenous people, past and present, for their contributions to the Australian Defence Force and the nation as a whole.

Disability

Defence aims to develop an inclusive workplace and enable employees with disability to contribute to the achievement of Defence goals by removing restrictive barriers and providing equitable access for all employees.

Defence is participating in the Australian Public Service Committee RecruitAbility Scheme, which facilitates the progression of applicants with disability through the APS recruitment process when they opt into the scheme and meet minimum requirements of the position. The scheme will assist in building the confidence and capability of applicants with disability, while simultaneously improving the ability of selection panels to assess their merits.

Defence has also commenced a new Intellectual Disability Employment Initiative, which will be implemented over the next four years through the establishment of dedicated APS 1 positions, specifically to employ people with intellectual disability in positions across the breadth of the department.

Work health and safety performance

Defence is committed to maintaining a safe, healthy and positive working experience for all workers to enable them to contribute to delivering Defence's capability requirements.

The 2012-2017 Defence Work Health and Safety (WHS) Strategy was developed to drive continuous improvement of work health and safety systems across the whole of Defence. It was released on 1 January 2012 to coincide with the implementation of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (WHS Act).

The nature of Defence military operations requires that at times our people operate in hazardous or extreme risk environments. The continuous improvement of Defence work health and safety means that information on risk and hazard mitigation, together with lessons learned, will be available and used by workers and their managers, commanders and supervisors.

Ensuring the health, safety and welfare of Defence workers

A number of high-priority health and safety initiatives were resourced and progressed in the WHS Strategy implementation plan this year:

  • the Work Health and Safety Management Information System project, which developed detailed design needs and is on track for completion in mid-2014
  • implementation of WHS shared service functions of WHS audit, Advice and Support (office based) and Targeted Reduction Investigation and Prevention
  • continued focus on the hazardous chemicals project providing a consistent comprehensive, and inclusive hazardous chemicals management system
  • implementation of enterprise-wide legislatively compliant WHS audit tools
  • Defence and DVA joint processes for support, rehabilitation and return to work for wounded injured and ill ADF members
  • incorporation ofWHS into the design and planning phases of Defence capability, including identification of roles and responsibilities
  • Umbrella Deed negotiations and ASDEFCON template updates to incorporate WHS requirements into all new contracts.

Recent annual reports on the Defence WHS Strategy are available here.

Comcare interventions and investigations

The WHS Act's requirement of a proactive approach to safety has changed the methodology used by Comcare. Comcare now undertakes interventions or inspections based on known high risk. The change of legislation has not negated the use of Improvement and Prohibition Notices. In order to assist Comcare to develop a workable arrangement for its new approach, Defence and Comcare have agreed a protocol on the management of interventions.

Table 6.5 - Work health and safety-Comcare interventions
1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2013
Interventions 311 Interventions 228

The number of proactive interventions is determined by the regulator's strategic focus and available resources.

Health and safety achievements

Ongoing commitment by Defence and its leaders toward improving the Defence safety culture is achieving results. Continued focus on safety in the design and planning phases of all Defence activities will maintain the positive cultural trend.

Table 6.6 - Work health and safety-safety awareness

Table 6.6 - Work health and safety-safety awareness
Attitude survey question ADF APS 2012 National benchmark 2011 Public sector benchmark
2011-12 Agree 2012-13 Agree 2011-12 Agree 2012-13 Agree
Health and safety is treated as an important issue in my workplace 91% 90% 87% 87% 83% 77%
I know how/where to obtain safety information relevant to my workplace 92% 92% 87% 87%
When I report an accident/injury/incident/hazard, I believe that appropriate action will be taken 86% 84% 81% 82% 91% 77%

Table 6.7 - Work health and safety-statistics and notifiable incidents, 2010-11 to 2012-13

Table 6.7 - Work health and safety-statistics and notifiable incidents, 2010-11 to 2012-13
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Total incident reports 19,707 18,588 16,060
Comcare notifiable deaths ¹ 13 11 9
Serious personal injury 1,594 1,262 971
Dangerous occurrence/incident 1,715 1,613 1,496
Total Comcare notifiable 3,332 2,891 2,483
Notes
  1. Comcare notifiable deaths are all deaths' excluding those that were known to be combat related.

Table 6.8 - Work health and safety-Comcare notices, 2010-11 to 2012-13

Table 6.8 - Work health and safety-Comcare notices, 2010-11 to 2012-13
Reports ¹ 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Improvement notices² 5 6 1
Prohibition notices³ 1 2 3
Do not disturb notices 2 0 1
Enforceable undertaking 5 - 1 -
Written request 6 1 - -
Notes
  1. Nil letters of statutory obligations; removal of plant or subs; letters of warning or criminal prosecutions.
  2. Nil letters of statutory obligations; removal of plant or subs; letters of warning or criminal prosecutions.
  3. Based on incidents and occurrences that contravene the OHS or the WHS legislation.
  4. Issued to remove an immediate threat to the health or safety of workers.
  5. Issued for a specific period of time to remove a threat to the health or safety of personnel.
  6. Comcare may accept a written undertaking to fulfil an obligation under the WHS Act.

Complaint handling and resolution

Defence employees have the right to complain if they are aggrieved by matters related to their employment. ADF members (Permanent and Reserve) may apply for redress of grievance under the provisions of Part XV of the Defence Force Regulations 1952. APS members may seek a review of actions under the Public Service Act 1999.

On average, 320 formal requests for redress are lodged by ADF members annually, representing approximately four complaints per thousand members (including Reservists). Similarly APS employees lodge an average of 80 formal requests for review of an action affecting them, which represents just under four complaints per thousand employees.

Military redress of grievance

Three hundred and twenty new applications for redress of grievance were received in the reporting period, a similar number to last year. Of these, 327 applications were finalised at unit level. Two hundred and forty-two (74 per cent) were not granted, withdrawn or not reviewable; the remainder were granted or partly granted. The majority of complaints concern termination of service decisions, career management issues, and conditions of service entitlements.

A significant proportion of members who are dissatisfied with the redress decision of their commanding officer refer their complaint to their Service Chief or to the CDF for further review. On average, one-third of redress of grievance applicants exercise this entitlement.

When a redress of grievance is referred to the CDF or a Service Chief, priority is allocated based on the nature of the complaint. Referrals contesting termination of service decisions continue to account for a significant proportion (31 per cent) of referred complaints. These cases are given the highest priority, often at the expense of other complaints.

Defence has continued to reduce the size of the backlog of referred complaints that has developed over the past five years. The number of open cases has reduced from a peak of 171 in January 2012 to 65 as at 30 June 2013. This reduction has resulted in an overall improvement in redress of grievance handling times.

APS reviews of actions

A total of 98 applications for reviews of actions were received across Defence in the reporting period, an increase of 21 per cent from the previous year. This increase is attributed to a significant period of organisational change impacting on a Defence employees and an increased level of awareness by employees of the review of actions provisions.

The following subjects featured most regularly in applications for review:

  • performance feedback/assessment and salary progression
  • handling and outcome of unacceptable behaviour complaints by line management
  • access to leave or other conditions of employment.

Unacceptable behaviour

Defence members and employees may make a complaint about any incident of unacceptable behaviour in the workplace. Defence policy requires that any complaint of unacceptable behaviour is to be reported and the department provides guidelines and support mechanisms to ensure that complaints are managed and resolved appropriately.

All Defence people are required to undertake annual workplace behaviour training, which includes information about expectations of behaviour and on dealing with any incident of unacceptable behaviour. Given the nature of service in the ADF, it should be noted that, for the majority of ADF members, this policy applies to their behaviour 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

There are, on average, between 700 and 750 complaints of unacceptable behaviour lodged across Defence each year. In 2012-13, 794 complaints of unacceptable behaviour were received. This increase in the number of complaints recorded is due to an improvement in how the department transfers data from other reporting systems to the ComTrack unacceptable behaviour database and to heightened awareness of the reporting requirements for unacceptable behaviour following the implementation of the Pathway to Change strategy.

Complaints about unacceptable behaviour fall into the following seven main categories:

  • abuse of power
  • discrimination
  • harassment
  • sexual harassment
  • sexual offence
  • workplace bullying
  • inappropriate workplace relationships and conflict of interest.

On average, only 13 per cent of unacceptable behaviour complaints are found to have substance each year. Given that more than one category of unacceptable behaviour may be identified in a single complaint, in substantiated complaints for the reporting period the most common behaviours were:

  • harassment—82 cases
  • workplace bullying—63 cases
  • sexual harassment—54 cases.

The number of allegations of unacceptable behaviour continues to represent complaints from less than one per cent of the Defence workforce.

Remunerating Defence's people

Defence remuneration is a key component of the Defence Employment Offer, which realises the People in Defence vision. It provides a key incentive for people to join Defence, develop personally and professionally and choose to remain in Defence. It is comprehensive, compelling and provides our people with fair and competitive remuneration as well as a broad suite of relevant financial and non-financial benefits.

Just as there are diverse ADF and APS remuneration requirements, there are separate ADF and APS remuneration structures. These structures are explained below.

APS remuneration

The Defence Enterprise Collective Agreement 2012-2014 sets out most of the terms and conditions of employment, including remuneration, performance management and working arrangements for Defence's non-SES APS employees. The legal framework that underpins the agreement includes the Fair Work Act 2009 and the Public Service Act. The agreement is developed, negotiated and governed consistent with that legislation and broader government policy. The current agreement came into effect in April 2012 and nominally expires on 30 June 2014. It was developed through extensive consultation with Defence employees and their representatives.

The agreement supports our capacity to attract and retain employees with the right skill and experience to meet capability needs. It is a principles-based agreement that supports the deregulation of Defence's employment policies and the People in Defence agenda. It provides managers and supervisors with the flexibility to make and implement decisions in their workplaces that meet the needs of both Defence and its employees.

Through the agreement, Defence can provide its APS employees with an attractive employment offer and in return, employees and supervisors have a range of responsibilities (including mutual responsibilities) that must be fulfilled as part of their employment with Defence. Salary rates for SES employees are set by a determination under section 24(1) of the Public Service Act. The range of salary rates is set out in Table 6.9.

Remuneration arrangements need to be sufficiently flexible to allow Defence to develop, attract and retain employees with the necessary skills and knowledge. The Secretary and any employee covered by the Defence Enterprise Collective Agreement may agree to make an individual flexibility arrangement to vary the effect of some specified terms of the agreement.

Table 6.9 -APS salary ranges as at 30 June 2013

Table 6.9 - APS salary ranges as at 30 June 2013
Salary range ($)
Classification Minimum Maximum
SES Band 3 ¹ $222,181 $441,901
SES Band 2 ² $178,677 $248,618
SES Band 1 $147,248 $172,781
Executive Level 2 ³ $108,838 $174,903
Executive Level 1 $93,740 $130,639
APS Level 6 5 $74,169 $87,281
APS Level 5 6 $67,702 $73,077
APS Level 4 $61,694 $67,354
APS Level 3 $54,463 $60,012
APS Level 2 7 $47,814 $54,305
APS Level 1 $42,250 $47,427
Notes
  1. Includes rates for Chief of Division 3.
  2. Includes rates for Chief of Division 2 and Medical Officer Class 6.
  3. Includes rates for EL2.1, EL2.2, Legal and Science specialist structures and Medical Officer Class 3 and 4.
  4. Includes rates for Public Affairs and Legal specialist structures and Medical Officer Class 1-2.
  5. Includes rates for Public Affairs Grade 2 retained pay point.
  6. Includes rates for Senior Technical Officer Grade 1 retained pay point.
  7. Includes rates for Technical Assistant Grade 2 retained pay point.

ADF remuneration

The independent Defence Force Remuneration Tribunal, established under section 58H of the Defence Act 1903, is responsible for setting pay and pay related allowances for ADF members.

The ADF Workplace Remuneration Arrangement 2011-2014 is a key component of the ADF Remuneration Framework and is consistent with the Government's broader workplace relations policies. The arrangement is part of the ADF remuneration initiative aimed at attracting and retaining military personnel and forms a significant part of the Defence Employment Offer.

Salary and salary related allowances increases under the workplace remuneration arrangements occur in return for improvements in organisational efficiency and productivity. Other non-salary related conditions of service are set under section 58B of the Act. The current arrangement expires on 3 November 2014.

Other financial conditions of service that recognise the special characteristics of service are determined by the Minister for Defence under section 58B of the Act.

Table 6.10 - Permanent ADF salary ranges as at 30 June 2013

Table 6.10 - Permanent ADF salary ranges as at 30 June 2013
Classification Salary range ($)
Minimum Maximum
Officer of the Permanent Force (equivalent)
General (E) ¹ $475,650 $679,500
Lieutenant General (E) ¹ $322,000 $460,000
Major General (E) ² $211,119 $257,500
Brigadier (E) ²³ $144,391 $235,458
Colonel (E) ²³ 5 $128,863 $225,878
Lieutenant Colonel (E) ²³ 5 $104,679 $214,930
Major (E) ² 5 6 $79,345 $193,776
Captain (E) ² 5 6 $62,145 $183,923
Lieutenant (E) 6 $51,660 $108,289
2nd Lieutenant (E) 6 $48,266 $101,092
Other rank of the Permanent Force (equivalent)
Warrant Officer Class 1 (E) $70,372 $108,310
Warrant Officer Class 2 (E) $64,816 $100,359
Staff Sergeant (E) $62,642 $96,817
Sergeant (E) $56,009 $92,591
Corporal (E) $48,399 $84,667
Lance Corporal (E) $44,520 $78,696
Private Proficient (E) $43,600 $77,776
Private (E) $42,699 $76,877
Notes
  1. General (E) and some Lieutenant General (E) rates are set by the Remuneration Tribunal.
  2. Includes rates for Medical Officers.
  3. Includes rates for Chaplains.
  4. Includes transitional rates for other rank appointed as officer.
  5. Excludes Medical Procedural Specialist.
  6. Service allowance of $12,431 per annum has not been included.

Table 6.11 - Defence ADF workplace agreements and arrangements

Table 6.11 - Defence ADF workplace agreements and arrangements
Australian Defence Force ¹ Star Rank Non-Star Rank
Members covered by the Workplace Remuneration Arrangement 0 55,781
Members covered by the Senior Officer Remuneration Arrangement 174 0
Statutory Office Holders (Remuneration Tribunal)² 6 1
Other category based remuneration arrangements³ 8 1
Notes
  1. Numbers in this table reflect Permanent Force members only. However, members of the Reserve Force are also covered by the relevant arrangement.
  2. Statutory office holders in Defence are remunerated under determinations made by the Remuneration Tribunal, which is administered by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet.
  3. Non-statutory office holders.

Senior Leadership Group remuneration

In accordance with government policy, SES employees in Defence have their conditions of employment, including level of remuneration, set by a 'collective' determination made under section 24(1) of the Public Service Act overlaid by individual common law agreements. As Defence operates in a values-based employment framework, mutual responsibilities for SES employees in areas including accountability, performance and productivity are also outlined in these instruments.

The Secretary may decide to increase the salary rates for each SES classification level, having regard to any of the following matters:

  • a review of the salary rates relevant to the employee's classification, conducted in July each year
  • movements in APS SES salary levels generally
  • other relevant factors, including Australian Government employment policy and non-SES and ADF remuneration outcomes
  • following a review at any time.

The ADF Senior Officer Remuneration Arrangement 2011-2014 is the military counterpart of the SES employment arrangement that applies collectively to all generalist ADF senior officers holding the rank of Brigadier (equivalent) and Major General (equivalent). All other senior officers (excluding statutory office holders) may be remunerated by way of a determination from the Defence Force Remuneration Tribunal under section 58H of the Defence Act 1903. Other non-salary related conditions of service are determined by the Minister of Defence under section 58B of the Defence Act.

Statutory office holders, including the Chief of the Defence Force and Secretary, are remunerated by way of a determination from the Remuneration Tribunal under the Remuneration Tribunal Act 1973.

Performance pay

Performance-related pay is available to non-SES employees under the current Defence Enterprise Collective Agreement. Subject to performance, employees may be entitled to progress to a higher pay point within the salary band for their classification or, for those at the top of the range be paid a one per cent lump sum payment. The salary advancement is not considered performance pay, however the lump sum payment to employees at the top of the pay band is considered to be a form of performance pay.

An SES employee may be paid non-superannuable bonuses. A performance bonus may be paid as an incentive and reward for exceptional performance during the performance cycle. Payment of a performance bonus is dependent on the Secretary's assessment of the SES employee-s performance. A retention bonus may be paid as an incentive to remain in an identified role.

Performance-based pay is not a feature of any existing ADF remuneration framework. Career development opportunities including promotion are the key recognitions of performance.

Productivity gains

The Australian Government requires improved remuneration and conditions for APS employees to be underpinned by improved productivity and performance. In accordance with the APS Bargaining Framework, Commonwealth agencies are required to ensure that they are able to demonstrate that proposed improvements to the terms and conditions of employment for agency employees are underpinned by quantifiable productivity initiatives.

Defence actual staffing

Russell Offices Defence civilians and military personnel.

This section outlines the changes in the workforce that occurred during 2012-13 and provides workforce information as at 30 June 2013. It includes numbers of people, employment categories, locations and gender information.

As at 30 June 2013, Defence had 78,112 permanent employees (headcount) comprising 56,172 permanent ADF members and 21,940 ongoing APS employees. An additional 167 APS employees were employed on a non-ongoing basis. Gap Year enlistments ceased at the end of 2011-12 and there no longer any participants.

In the 12 months to June 2013, the permanent ADF strength (headcount) decreased by 546. The Reserve Force comprised 25,680 active employees. The total ADF workforce was 81,852, and included 18,675 Navy Permanent and Reserve members, 44,962 Army Permanent and Reserve members and 18,215 Air Force Permanent and Reserve members. In the 12 months to 30 June 2013, the Reserve component of the ADF decreased by 349, from 26,029 to 25,680. This included both Reservists on continuous full-time service and Active Reserves. At 30 June 2013, 1,586 Reservists were also Defence APS employees.

As at 30 June 2013 there were 5,565 APS employees in the DMO and 16,542 in the remainder of Defence. This number included all APS employees recorded as active employees and included full-time, part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing, and paid and unpaid employees.

Defence's headcount APS staffing figure for the year, reported in Table 6.12, showed a downward trend: from 23,299 at 30 June 2012 to 22,107 at 30 June 2013, a reduction of 1,192. The headcount figure includes paid and unpaid employees, covering full-time, part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees.

Table 6.12 Defence workforce comparison as at 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2013

Table 6.12 Defence workforce comparison as at 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2013
Navy Army Air Force ADF APS ¹
30 June 2012 ²
Permanent ³ 13,670 28,828 14,220 56,718
Defence 16,985
DMO 6,314
Total (as at 30 June 2012) 13,670 28,828 14,220 56,718 23,299
30 June 2013
Separations ³
Permanent 1,207 3,518 886 5,611
Defence 1,733
DMO 576
Sub-total 1,207 3,518 886 5,611 2,309
Net Transfers
Defence 340
DMO -340
Sub-total 0
Additions
Permanent ³ 1,054 3,277 734 5,065
Defence 950
DMO 167
Sub-total 1,054 3,277 734 5,065 1,117
Permanent ³ 13,517 28,587 14,068 56,172
Defence 16,542
DMO 5,565
Total (as at 30 June 2013) 13,517 28,587 14,068 56,172 22,107
Change −153 −241 −152 −546 −1,192
Notes
  1. APS figures include paid and unpaid employees, which covers full-time, part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees.
  2. Some 30 June 2012 strength figures have been adjusted from what was reported in the Defence Annual Report 2011-12 to account for retrospective transactions.
  3. Figures do not include the Gap Year program or Reserves including those on continuous full-time service.
  4. Net transfers represent the net effect of transfer of APS employees between Defence and DMO. Some of these transfers are the result of movements under the shared services program.

Table 6.13 - ADF Permanent, Gap Year and Reserve Forces, and APS by gender and employment category comparison as at 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2013

Table 6.13 - ADF Permanent, Gap Year and Reserve Forces, and APS by gender and employment category comparison as at 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2013¹²³
As at 30 June 2012 As at 30 June 2013
Men % 5 Women % 5 Men % 5 Women % 5
Navy Permanent
Trained Force
Officers 1,921 14.1% 466 3.4% 1,972 14.6% 471 3.5%
Other ranks 7,998 58.5% 1,767 12.9% 6,734 49.8% 1,508 11.2%
Total Navy 11,145 81.5% 2,525 18.5% 11,029 81.6% 2,488 18.4%
Army Permanent
Trained Force
Officers 4,464 15.5% 730 2.5% 4,520 15.8% 757 2.6%
Other ranks 18,506 64.2% 1,869 6.5% 17,829 62.4% 1,905 6.7%
Training Force
Officers 793 2.8% 181 0.6% 785 2.7% 192 0.7%
Other ranks 2,150 7.5% 135 0.5% 2,315 8.1% 284 1.0%
Total Army 25,913 89.9% 2,915 10.1% 25,449 89.0% 3,138 11.0%
Air Force Permanent
Trained Force
Officers 3,262 22.9% 750 5.3% 3,262 23.2% 771 5.5%
Other ranks 7,675 54.0% 1,428 10.0% 7,409 52.7% 1,414 10.1%
Training Force
Officers 485 3.4% 148 1.0% 521 3.7% 161 1.1%
Other ranks 386 2.7% 86 0.6% 416 3.0% 114 0.8%
Total Air Force 11,808 83.0% 2,412 17.0% 11,608 82.5% 2,460 17.5%
ADF Permanent
Trained Force
Officers 9,647 17.0% 1,946 3.4% 9,754 17.4% 1,999 3.6%
Other ranks 34,179 60.3% 5,064 8.9% 31,972 56.9% 4,827 8.6%
Training Force
Officers 1,916 3.4% 502 0.9% 1,921 3.4% 523 0.9%
Other ranks 3,124 5.5% 340 0.6% 4,439 7.9% 737 1.3%
Total ADF Permanent 48,866 86.2% 7,852 13.8% 48,086 85.6% 8,086 14.4%
Gap Year
Navy - - - - - - - -
Army 131 78.9% 35 21.1% - - - -
Air Force - - - - - - - -
Total Gap Year 131 78.9% 35 21.1% - - - -
Reserves 6
Navy 4,078 15.7% 1,048 4.0% 4,091 15.9% 1,067 4.2%
Army 14,656 56.3% 2,272 8.7% 14,206 55.3% 2,169 8.4%
Air Force 3,128 12.0% 847 3.3% 3,278 12.8% 869 3.4%
Total Reserves 21,862 84.0% 4,167 16.0% 21,575 84.0% 4,105 16.0%
APS (less DMO) 7 8 9,638 41.4% 7,347 31.5% 9,341 42.3% 7,201 32.6%
APS (DMO) 7 8 4,203 18.0% 2,111 9.1% 3,768 17.0% 1,797 8.1%
Total APS 13,841 59.4% 9,458 40.6% 13,109 59.3% 8,998 40.7%
Grand total 84,700 79.7% 21,512 20.3% 82,770 79.6% 21,189 20.4%
Notes
  1. Figures in this table show employee numbers (substantive headcount) as at 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2013.
  2. ADF permanent headcount does not include Gap Year participants who are reported separately in this table.
  3. Percentage figures are calculated against the individual Service totals.
  4. Some 30 June 2012 figures have been adjusted from what was reported in the Defence Annual Report 2011-12 to account for retrospective transactions.
  5. Percentages may not sum due to rounding.
  6. Reserves include all active members (training, deployed and other part-time military work commitments) and those on continuous full-time service.
  7. Figures include paid, unpaid, full-time, part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees.
  8. 30 June 2013 figures for APS include 1,586 APS employees who are also counted as Reserve members.

Table 6.14 APS personnel by gender and category comparison as at 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2013

Table 6.14 APS personnel by gender and category comparison as at 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2013 ¹²
As at 30 June 2012³ As at 30 June 2013
Full-time Parttime Total Full-time Part-time Total
Ongoing employees
Men 13,504 178 13,682 12,849 177 13,026
Women 8,263 985 9,248 7,887 1,027 8,914
Total Ongoing 21,767 1,163 22,930 20,736 1,204 21,940
Non-ongoing employees
Men 142 17 159 81 2 83
Women 177 33 210 72 12 84
Total non-ongoing 319 50 369 153 14 167
Men 13,646 195 13,841 12,930 179 13,109
Women 8,440 1,018 9,458 7,959 1,039 8,998
Total 22,086 1,213 23,299 20,889 1,218 22,107
Notes
  1. Figures in this table show employee numbers (substantive headcount) as at 30 June 2012 and 30 June 2013.
  2. Figures include paid and unpaid employees.
  3. Some 30 June 2012 strength figures have been adjusted from what was reported in the 2011-12 Defence Annual Report to account for retrospective transactions.
  4. Part-time employees are those with weekly hours less than the standard hours. It does not relate to employees in part-time positions.

Table 6.15 Distribution of Defence workforce by employment location as at 30 June 2013

Table 6.15 Distribution of Defence workforce by employment location as at 30 June 2013 ¹
NSW VIC QLD SA WA TAS NT ACT ² O/S ³ Total
Permanent Forces 5
Navy 6,446 1,338 969 69 2,253 19 710 1,476 237 13,517
Army 5,305 3,122 11,397 1,564 848 78 3,468 2,532 273 28,587
Air Force 4,818 904 3,013 1,817 369 7 1,020 1,893 227 14,068
Sub-total 16,569 5,364 15,379 3,450 3,470 104 5,198 5,901 737 56,172
Reserve Forces 5 6
Navy 1,356 529 824 234 921 165 166 949 14 5,158
Army 4,491 2,897 3,716 1,280 1,718 556 657 1,058 2 16,375
Air Force 961 391 1,090 436 280 50 137 802 0 4,147
Sub-total 6,808 3,817 5,630 1,950 2,919 771 960 2,809 16 25,680
ADF total 23,377 9,181 21,009 5,400 6,389 875 6,158 8,710 753 81,852
APS (Defence) 5 7 8 2,115 2,800 1,142 2,027 393 87 326 7,562 90 16,542
APS (DMO) 5 7 8 1,279 1,600 342 291 211 0 28 1,800 14 5,565
Total 26,771 13,581 22,493 7,718 6,993 962 6,512 18,072 857 103,959
Notes
  1. Figures in this table show employee numbers (substantive headcount) as at 30 June 2013.
  2. ACT figures include employees located in Jervis Bay Territory.
  3. Overseas figures represent employees posted for reasons including long-term duty, training, exchange and liaison.
  4. Permanent force figures include paid and unpaid employees.
  5. Employees are shown as per their substantive state code.
  6. Reserve force figures include Reserves on Continuous Full-Time Service.
  7. APS figures include paid and unpaid employees, which covers full-time, part-time, ongoing and non-ongoing employees.
  8. 30 June 2013 figures for APS include 1,586 APS employees who are also counted as Reserve members.

Table 6.16 Distribution of APS by employment location as at 30 June 2013

Table 6.16 Distribution of APS by employment location as at 30 June 2013 ¹
NSW VIC QLD SA WA TAS NT ACT ² O/S ³ Total
Secretary 1 1
Senior Executive Service 1 7 1 8 1 133 2 153
SES relief staffing 5 1 13 1 15
Executive levels 6 494 994 168 882 110 9 38 3,662 84 6,441
Executive relief staffing 7 40 71 20 22 7 3 386 549
Other APS Levels 8 2,859 3,328 1,295 1,405 487 78 312 5,167 17 14,948
Total 3,394 4,400 1,484 2,318 604 87 354 9,362 104 22,107
Notes
  1. Figures in this table show employee numbers (substantive headcount) as at 30 June 2013 and include paid and unpaid employees.
  2. ACT figures include employees located in Jervis Bay Territory.
  3. Overseas figures represent staff posted for long-term duty.
  4. Senior Executive Service (SES) includes Deputy Secretary, First Assistant Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Chief of Division and Medical Officer Class 6 classifications.
  5. SES relief staffing indicates non-SES officers who are temporarily acting in SES positions. These officers are on Additional Responsibility Payments due to temporary or longer-term vacancies.
  6. Includes Executive Levels 1 and 2.
  7. Executive relief staffing indicates APS levels on Additional Responsibility Payments due to temporary or longer-term vacancies.
  8. Other APS levels include levels 1 to 6.

Table 6.17 Star ranked officers as at 30 June 2013

Table 6.17 Star ranked officers as at 30 June 2013 ¹²
Total star rank 2012-13 promotions³ 2012-13 separations
Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total
Four star
Navy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Army 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air Force 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Three star
Navy 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Army 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air Force 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Two star
Navy 14 1 15 4 0 4 0 0 0
Army 17 0 17 3 0 3 3 0 3
Air Force 8 0 8 0 0 0 2 1 3
One star 5
Navy 39 1 40 7 0 7 4 0 4
Army 49 6 55 10 1 11 7 0 7
Air Force 41 3 44 6 2 8 4 0 4
Total 175 11 186 30 3 33 20 1 21
Notes
  1. Officers on acting or higher duties are not included.
  2. Figures include Permanent Officers and Reserve Officers completing continuous full-time service.
  3. Promotions include those Officers promoted between levels. Figures include Permanent Officers and Reserve Officers completing continuous full-time service.
  4. Separations include Permanent Officers and Reserve Officers completing continuous full-time service.
  5. Figures include three chaplains (one from each Service).

Table 6.18 APS Senior Executive Service employees as at 30 June 2013

Table 6.18 APS Senior Executive Service employees as at 30 June 2013 ¹²
Total SES 2012-13 engagements³ 2012-13 separations
Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total
Senior Executive
Secretary 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
Band 3 9 2 11 2 0 2 2 1 3
Band 2 5 25 8 33 1 1 2 2 1 3
Band 1 63 30 93 3 3 6 7 2 9
Chief of Division
Grade 3 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1
Grade 2 11 3 14 0 0 0 0 0 0
Senior Executive
Relief staff 6 14 1 15 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 125 44 169 7 4 11 13 4 17
Notes
  1. Figures in this table show employee numbers at their substantive level, but not employees on longer term unpaid leave.
  2. Gains and losses do not reflect movement of officers between levels in each of the SES and Chief of Division streams.
  3. Gains and losses do not reflect movement of officers between levels in each of the SES and Chief of Division streams.
  4. Separation figures include resignations, retirements, redundancies, promotions and transfers to other agencies.
  5. SES Band 2 includes Medical Officer Grade 6.
  6. Relief staff indicates non-SES officers who are temporarily acting in SES/Chief of Division positions due to temporary or longer-term vacancies